Philosophy of the Person I
Midterm exam – Questions
1. What is Plato’s Republic about?
to determine an extended definition of what constitutes Justice in a state and how Justice can be accomplished
it also strives to define individual justice
an underlining question through out the book is, is it better to be just than to be just?
Is a just man truly happy
2. What are the initial definitions of Justice? (Book I)
in the beginning dialog there are unable to arrive at a conclusion for what justice is but they come to many for what justice is
Ex: telling the truth and paying ones debts
Story of the friend and the sword, would you give it back if they go crazy
There is a lot of debate with Thrasymachus about is being unjust better off than being just
In the end there is no definition
3. how does Glaucon define all goods? Where does justice belong? (II)
he has 3 types of goods 1. Things that we desire only for their consequences
physical training/ medical treatment
2. Things that we desire for its own sake
3. A combination of 1 and 2
knowledge and health
he says that most people class justice with the first category
because one does not practice it for their own sake but out of fear and weakness
example: ring of Gyges if invisible you would act unjust
4. what is the legend of the ring of Gyges about?
It is an example that people only act just because they fear the consequences and punishment of not
The story states: imagine a man receives a ring that can turn him invisible, if in possession of the ring a man can act unjustly
with no fear of reprisal, and that you can deny that even the most just man would not be tempted to be unjust without can
5. talking about justice in the individual, Socrates introduces the political justice as well. Why?
He believes that since a city is bigger than a man, he will proceed upon the assumption that it is easier to first look for justice
at the political level and then later to see if there is a similar virtue among individuals.
6. What is for Socrates the foundational principle of human society? What does it mean?
THE PRINCIPLE OF SPECIALIZATION
Each person is to perform the role for which they are best naturally suited and must no meddle with any other business
A farmer must only be a farmer, not also a carpenter This is brought out by the principle that human beings have a natural inclination of fulfillment
7. How does Socrates build the perfect city? Describe its groups (IV)
the guardians who have the wisdom, because they are the rulers
the auxiliaries have the courage, because they are the ones that fight for the city
moderation and justice are spread over the 3 groups
8. Nature does not produce warriors; they have to be educated. Who are the men disposed to become warriors and what
their education looks like? What is Socrates’ dilemma regarding their education? (Book II). What is the function of stories /
myths in the process of education? (Book III)
it is crucial that these guardians/ warriors develop a good balance between gentleness and toughness
they must be carefully selected
with correct nature or innate psychology
education will involve physical training for body, music and poetry for the soul
it is so important because it effects the soul and ultimately the city as a whole
the stories are meant to be teachings for the guardians so no bad stories are allowed
9. Explain the myth of the metals? (III)
it says that all citizens are born out of the earth, this persuades the people to be patriotic, and it says that the ground is
everyone’s mother and that all the citizens are then brothers and sisters. It then states that in each of our souls is a small
piece of the earth and that some have gold=guardians some silver=auxiliary and some bronze=producers.
The idea of the myth is that Plato does not want any conflict between who is in what class and that everyone knows where
Also gives idea that children can be born into different groups 10. Why does not Socrates care about the happiness of the warriors? What is more important? (IV)
he does not care about the happiness of any single group because what means the most is that the city as a whole is happy
11. Why does the just city need no law?
12. Where is the place of Justice in the just city? Where is the place of wisdom, courage, and moderation?
WISDOM is with the guardians because they are the rulers
COURAGE is with the auxiliaries because they are fighting the battles
MODERATION AND JUSTICE are spread though out the entire city to all of the classes
Justice is that everyone does their own job
Moderation is that everyone has self control
13. Describe tree parts of the human soul and their functions! What is the soul of the just person like?
14. Who are the true philosophers who should rule the city? Describe the difference between true and false philosophers.
True philosophers will take care of all while others will just take care of some
The difference between the real and pseudo are the fake re the “lovers of sights and sounds”
While the real are those who have the knowledge of the forms, the external truth The lovers of sights and sounds have opinions and not knowledge
15. Socrates compares the situation in the city to a ship with an old captain. What is the message of this parable?
The message is that the good true philosophers who were not corrupted are not being used
That everyone is trying to be clever and use unjust tricks to get ahead but those who have true knowledge are not being use
That a ships captain has fallen ill and that all of the other men on the boat who are not qualified are trying to take over his
position by using clever tricks but in reality that is not helpful to the boat because they do not have the navigational skills
16. The true philosopher is able to come to know the Good itself. Socrates describes the Good as “what is apparently
an offspring of the good and most like it” (506e). Explain the analogy of the Sun and its relation to the Good! (VI)
the sun is the visible realm
it is the source of light, which makes us intelligent
it gives us sight, and it enables us to see> which makes us capable of knowledge
and it is responsible for causing things to exist (esp. the Forms)
17. The analogy is meant to illustrate four grades of understanding the world. Explain these four grades.
It is the analogy of the line first you take a line and split it half
At the bottom= IMAGINATION
It is the lowest because it only exists in our minds
Next = BELIEFS
Low because it is also consistently changing
Right above half way= THOUGHTS Like geometry (we have different forms/shapes that are always forms, but we need them)
At the top= UNDERSTANDING
Simply knowing, pure abstract knowledge “the good”
18. Explain the allegory of the Cave. (VII)
there are people who are in a cave and are chained there and positioned so that they can only face the opposite way of the
entrance. Behind them is at wall with statues on it and a fire is behind the wall, so that the light from the fire casts shadows
on the wall in front of the people. THEY THINK THIS IS WHAT IS REAL IN THE WORLD BUT REALLY JUST
finally they are released from the chains and turn around to see that the shadows are not real but just figures of real things
THIS IS BELIEF
some will finally make their way out of the cave and at the very beginning they will see nothing because they are adjusting to
the sun but then they start seeing real objects (trees, grass, animals) THIS IS THOUGHT
lastly they see the sun and learn that they are only able to see these real objects because of the sun THIS IS
the sun=the good
and once they become philosophers with the knowledge they must retur