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Midterm

Exam 2 Notes (got 92%)

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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 1091
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All

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1 Perspectives Exam II Genesis Samuel (originally a judge, military leader who studied feuds) People wanted a king Lord tried to have Samuel talk them out of it They still wanted one to become more unified and strong Lord told Samuel to just give them in a King Allegiance shifts from God to another figure Samuel anoints Saul as King Saul is the from the most humble family from the lowest tribe of Benjamin Saul makes an offering before Samuel told him to Samuel was angry about this Saul sent to ruin Amalek Amalek had treated the Israelites poorly as they left Egypt Saul spared King Agag and the best flock, which was disobeying God Even though he was going to offer the flock, it was disobeying to God Better to obey God then to sacrifice God wants a new king, Saul’s lyre player David David Not the strongest of Jesse’s sons like Samuel expected God looks at the heart and chose the youngest sheep watcher David Model of all future kings, the best (although unlikely) Fought Goliath of the Philistines who everyone was afraid of David thought he could take him because he had killed bears/lions before while watching sheep David kills Goliath without armor, with one stone and Goliath’s sword Saul became very jealous and feared David quite a bit Saul even wanted David killed, but he lived Wants Uriah to die because he had an affair with his wife Bathsheba Gets caught up in his power and is disobedient to God 2 Exodus Moses Has a religious conversion Is resistant at first, eventually surrenders to God’s will Becomes mediator and liberator of God’s people Similar to Socrates’ idea of enlightenment and liberation Why would people blindly follow a guy leading them into the desert? Mediator: medium through which God speaks his message Knowledge/truth is outside of the people who God reveals it to Unlike Socrates who brings out truth which is already in people through dialectic Power of liberation lies in God Socrates believes that liberation lies in the individual Covenant: I am God and you will be my people Bond between them often expressed with marital language 10 commandments Meant stability and order for a people who felt hopeless and disorganized in the desert Renewed their idea of society Land: place to worship freely, create own laws and culture Land meets up with religious ideas Law: source and principle of how people develop virtuously Symbolism Burning bush Theophany: appearance of God Fire gives light, light associated with truth Fire is powerful and spreads Religious experience, fire as a source of warmth Good for getting attention, must keep distance Remove your sandals, you’re on holy ground Divine transcendence: cannot be touched Different from touchable Greek gods Mountain Height is symbolic of transcendence, you can see below all of it Symbolic of enlightenment Passover: Angel of death comes to kill 1 born Egyptians as the end of the plague Israelites mark door with lamb’s blood, they are passed over Lamb’s blood/sacrifice is symbolic of redemption Jesus understands himself as the lamb of God Deuteronomy 3 Moses reminds people of the covenant that God made with Israelites Moses goes over even more laws By following, the people will be set above nations on top Expansion of laws found in Exodus, renewal of practices due to reform Teaching strives for reform and development New situations call for new laws, new social standards, etc. Teachings here are preserving religious identity 4 Samuel 5 (originally a judge, military leader who studied feuds) People wanted a king Lord tried to have Samuel talk them out of it They still wanted one to become more unified and strong Lord told Samuel to just give them in a King Allegiance shifts from God to another figure Samuel anoints Saul as King Saul is the from the most humble family from the lowest tribe of Benjamin Saul makes an offering before Samuel told him to Samuel was angry about this Saul sent to ruin Amalek Amalek had treated the Israelites poorly as they left Egypt Saul spared King Agag and the best flock, which was disobeying God Even though he was going to offer the flock, it was disobeying to God Better to obey God then to sacrifice God wants a new king, Saul’s lyre player David David Not the strongest of Jesse’s sons like Samuel expected God looks at the heart and chose the youngest sheep watcher David Model of all future kings, the best (although unlikely) 6 Fought Goliath of the Philistines who everyone was afraid of David thought he could take him because he had killed bears/lions before while watching sheep David kills Goliath without armor, with one stone and Goliath’s sword Saul became very jealous and feared David quite a bit Saul even wanted David killed, but he lived Wants Uriah to die because he had an affair with his wife Bathsheba Gets caught up in his power and is disobedient to God Kings King David dies Solomon is the new king Solomon Struck people down right away Dreamt that the Lord was very pleased with him because he asked for an understanding mind to govern with rather than riches Performed clever method of determining which woman’s baby it was after a disagreement Had many advisors and a lot of land Judah and Israel were successful Planned to build the house to the lord David’s friend Hiram helped provide the labor Very well thought out Lord consecrated the house and his name/heart/eyes will remain there until Israel turns away from God st Broke the 1 commandment by loving other gods that his foreign wives believed in 7 Elijah The last prophet Israelites began believing in a God named Boal (fertility God) Syncretism: praising many gods in other cultures and nations Elijah proved to them that Boal was not the true—Israelites then killed the prophets of Boal Jezebel heard and wanted to kill Elijah, Elijah fled and was distraught but God provides for him Elisha named as new prophet Ahab wanted Naboth’s vineyard Naboth would not give it up Ahab was so upset he didn’t eat, Jezebel his wife wrote letters acting like Ahab and had Naboth stoned to death so Ahab could have the vineyard Elijah tells him he will die for stealing and killing Because Ahab humbled himself God will wait to harm Ahab’s son’s generation Lasting consequence of his action Provides mercy and justice Just to punish, merciful to pardon Israel’s kings get more and more evil God leaves them People of Judah are invaded and exiled to Babylon Babylonian exile Expression of divine justice/punishment from God Good fortune as a reward from God 8 Cycle disobedience and punishment (suffering) King becomes disobedient and then leads nations there, punishment Restored to justice (justice: being in right relationship with God) Not vengeance, restorative: for the sake of restoring a relationship with God God never gives up on his people Jeremiah Jeremiah appointed as prophet, created to be a savior Gave power to destroy, overthrow, and rebuild Law makers didn’t know the Lord, nor did the priests—why did Jerusalem stray from God for worthless things? Loving many gods is like being a whore Search Jerusalem and find just 1 person to grant all of Jerusalem pardon They’ve been given warnings but they still don’t change Keep rejecting teachings, all will perish Lord like a potter, can mold the clay to his liking on a whim People are plotting against Jeremiah for prophesizing He is frustrated, questions why God made him be a prophet? Is very driven to speak God’s word Can’t NOT preach God’s word despite criticism Similar to how Socrates was criticized Jacob will be saved 9 Lord will cure sins and restore good fortune From him shall come the Prince Job Satan claims people who are stripped of blessings will no longer have faith in God Human beings aren’t good, only act righteous with blessings and such God gives Satan control of Job—won’t kill him though Job is tortured, questions God, does he curse God? God comes down hard on Job for questioning God Job’s friends tell him to give up on God and that he must’ve done something wrong Job wonders why he is suffering because he knows he’s innocent God is harsh on Job’s friends because they pretend to know God’s ways Lord finds favor with Job because he repents quickly and is confident in his innocence Who actually won? God or Satan? “A thousand questions don’t make a single doubt”-Newman Isaiah Once again God warns that the people will be destroyed Nations will be judged and sinners will be oppressed by one another Vineyard is planted perfectly for grapes so why did wild grapes grow? No gloom for those in darkness 10 Land of Midian (Exodus reference) Will be freed by a child whose authority will grow and peace will be endless Messianic reference, King like David Saved by a shoot from the son of Jesse (David’s father) that will hold the spirit of the lord Like a broken family tree, not LIKE the other kings but continuous with them Will judge with righteousness Peace will come about, peace among animals which represents the nations No peace for the wicked Lord called Isaiah, light to nations Given teachers tongue despite insults by people has not been disgraced due to God’s grace Israel will be like a light to the nations Servant (Messianic figure) will suffer and be wounded for the iniquities of all Life as an offering for sin We will see the light through him Jesus forms his own understanding with this, as a Jew After this the Lord will not anger again Cyrus: Persian king who defeated Babylonians and allowed Israelites to return and rebuild the temple MAIN THEMES IN ISAIAH Anointed king, Jerusalem, renewal and restoration, omnipotence, suffering servant Matthew: Jewish identity of Jesus 11 Christ’s Birth Mary found with a child when he was engaged Joseph going to dismiss her but an angel came and said to wait because the baby will save people from their sins Will be called Emmanuel, “God is with us” Wise men came from East to ask Herod about the newborn king to Bethlehem Herod ordered them to find him Wise men found him offered him gifts and were warned not to tell Herod so they left Joseph was told to flee to Egypt to protect the child Herod killed all children under 2, fulfilling prophet Jeremiah John the Baptist Came from wilderness to prep people for kingdom of heaven Jesus was baptized and the spirit came down and declared him to be the son Jesus tempted by the devil Followed the commandments, didn’t worship the devil, saved by angels Made Simon/Peter, Andrew, James, and John fishers of men to proclaim good news Beatitudes are introduced to disciples Meant to shock/alarm audiences Additions to the commandments to make them more radical, interior thoughts and motives rather than just actions You are the light of the world, the city on a hill that can’t be hidden, you must spread the light Love and pray for your enemies What good is it to be good to only your brothers and sisters? 12 Pray for those who persecute you God loves all people unconditionally Does this violate justice? Not giving them what is due? Love doesn’t mean the feeling Wish well being, good for their sake Parables Spoken so that the people don’t just listen but also understand/perceive Jesus breaks tradition while walking on water Pharisees are upset with Jesus for breaking tradition Pharisees: interpreters of Jewish la
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