SOC 4410 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Sigmund Freud, Central Nervous System, Atavism

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Readings: all assigned through week 11: crime trends, compare/contrast sources, over time/space, major correlates, age/sex/social class/race/ethnicity, chronic offenders, bio-social theories, early biological theories, limitations of early research. Institutional anomie theory (macro-level: social/ecology disorganization theories, formation of cities, social disorganization, modern context, cultural social isolation, collective efficacy. Individualistic explanations of delinquency: early biological explanations, positivist. Indirect effects (contemporary thinking: psycho-social theories, trait theories vs learning theories, ancient greeks: humoral theory, choleric: yellow bile, bad temper/irritable/does not like people, melancholic: black bile, sad/down/gloomy/pessimistic, phlegmatic: phlegm, sluggish/calm/not responding, sanguine: blood, cheerful/bold/passionate. Limitations: where do traits come from, why do we show those personalities/attitudes, why is it unlikely to change, sigmund freud: psychoanalytic theory. Id: subconscious level: basic needs/instincts, superego: conscience, morality/limitations/ethic rules, where does it come from, social nature: parenting/socialization (early development, biological factors, weak superego -> criminal behavior/personality, ego: conscious level, balance/touch with reality/rationality.