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ANTH 242 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Ambulatory Blood Pressure, Cortisol Awakening Response, Sphygmomanometer

Course Code
ANTH 242
Gary D.James
Study Guide

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ANTH 242
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September 28th Anthropology Notes:
Women in NYC:
History: As the 1980s began other than the studies of Oxfordshire, there were few other studies
evaluating “stress” hormones in real life, and none that directly assessed the relationship in the
diurnal changes in the hormones and diurnal changes in blood pressure for the purpose of
determining how people became hypertensive.
-Specifically there was very little information on the question, “How do people develop high
blood pressure?” or more specifically, “Where do hypertensive people come from?”
-It was obvious that all people with high blood pressure had normal blood pressure at some point
in their lives, but the process of how it got to be high remained a mystery.
-Life stress was thought to be an important contributor, and while there were theories as to how it
happened, there was virtually no data or observations to back any of it up.
Study of Women in New York City: -In 1985 a proposal was made to the NIH to conduct a study
of life stress in women employed outside the home.
-It focused on 3 main questions:
1). Does blood pressure follow neuroendocrine activity (as reflected in the levels of urinary
catecholamines) during the course of a typical work day?
2). What aspects of daily life contribute most to the variation in blood pressure and
neuroendocrine activity?
3). How do the factors which influence blood pressure and neuroendocrine activity change and
interact over the course of the day?
Study of Women in New York City: -Used a natural experimental design, comparing urinary
epinephrine, urinary epinephrine, and blood pressure at work, at home, and during sleep.
Natural Experimental Design: Ecological Design to Study Microenvironmental Stress:
-Work (Task 1)
-Home (Task 2)
-Sleep (Baseline/Recovery)
-Wasn’t community-based, but rather focused on women who were all employed in similar jobs
(secretaries and technicians) at the same workplace.
-All the women were healthy, had normal blood pressure, and were premenopausal (aged 18-50).
-The first study consisted of 121 women, who were assessed during the fall-winter of 1986-1989.
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