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Midterm

Exam 2.pdf

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
CAS AN 102
Professor
Matt Cartmill

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Exam 2 Thursday, March 28, 2013 11:50 AM I. Dental apes a. Apelike skulls i. y-5 molars 1) But: a) Larger snouts b) Large nasal openings c) Definitely quadrapeds b. Monkey-like post cranial c. Proconsul d. Nachoolapithecus i. Only difference is a more upright (twisted back) clavicle e. Africa i. Larger ii. May or may not be ancestors f. Europe i. End of the Miocene 1) Possible ancestors ii. Morotopithecus 1) Reduced galloping muscles 2) May have been too late to be an ancestor iii. Oreopithecus 1) Definitely adapted to arm swinging 2) Dentition is off and brain too small: not ancestor a) Supports convergent evolution for arm swingers iv. Dryopitecus 1) Probably mostly hind leg locomotion g. Asia i. Shivapitecids 1) Ancestors to modern orangutans? a) Monkey quadrapedal post cranials h. Cooling of the earth lead to changes in the fossil record i. Apprearance of cercopitecids ii. Gigantopitecus 1) Giant teethed, horse sized grazer II. First hominoids a. African forests, where most current ape territory is b. Most fossils found in eastern Africa, where a chain of great lakes and volcanoes preserves fossil material c. Arthur Keith i. 1866-1955 ii. All commonalities between humans and apes, and their differences from monkeys, can be explained by adaptations for arm swinging iii. It would make the most sense, therefore, that apes and us had a common ancestor, but according to timing and location of a lot of the fossils we have, that may not be true 1) If not, then there was a lot more convergence going on than you would expect based on statistics d. Ardipithecus ramidus i. Lovejoy ii. Grasping toe 1) Long curved finger bones that are bigger than foot bones iii. Arm to leg ratio too long 1) Climber and a walker? a) Hips seem to be the right arch i) BUT: One. Very few samples Two. Most of samples are reconstructions, not actual fossil material iv. Generally more closely resembles an ape e. Gracile hominids: Australapithecus i. Anamensis 1) Kenya area 2) Big but flat canines a) Small incisors Note: b) Apelike but large molars Human Locomotion (what we're looking for in 3) Evidence of bipedalism a fossil) i. Short illium that is wider and goes 4) Blends into the next species ii. Afarensis further back 1) Lucy a. Allows weight to settle above hips and behind the center 2) 3-4 MYA 3) Same area, extended north and south b. Increases area for gluteals to 4) Probably bipedal attach to for upright balance a) Similar angle of femur to humans ii. Big hip and sacroiliac joints i) But small femoral head and long neck iii. Larger lumbars b) Big toe (based on footprints in area) forward and not opposable iv. Curving of the spine to bring the head in c) Small vertebral centra line with the hips and the shoulders back d) Short wide hips v. Short and wide sacrum Human Bio Page 1 a) Similar angle of femur to humans ii. Big hip and sacroiliac joints i) But small femoral head and long neck iii. Larger lumbars b) Big toe (based on footprints in area) forward and not opposable iv. Curving of the spine to bring the head in c) Small vertebral centra line with the hips and the shoulders back d) Short wide hips v. Short and wide sacrum i) But very short and flared out far a. Due to loss of space for birth from One. How did they give birth? the shorter narrower hips, sacrum ii) Small sacrum is shorter and wider to lend extra One. But poorly stabilized space vi. Short femur neck with much larger 5) Overall not well formed to have most of body weight sitting on the pelvis 6) Bahrelghazali femur head a) Found in Chad vii. Due to large amount of time spent on one foot, adaptations for weight b) So similar that might not actually be separate, only difference seeming to be location iii. Playtops balancing lever action 1) kenya viii. Actually less efficient than the Afarensis 2) Smaller molars design: humans sacri
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