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Boston University
CAS HI 338

THE ULTIMATE HI338 MIDTERM OUTLINE Great Depression and the New Deal • 1930s and political modernity • New Deal coalition o The alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s o Included Democratic party organizations, big city machines, labor unions, minorities (racial, ethnic and religious, especially Blacks, Catholics and Jews), liberal farm groups, intellectuals, the Mountain West, and the white South • Modern Democratic Party • Causes of the Great Depression o Stock market crash, bank failures, American economic policy with Europe, droughts • The ordeal of Herbert Hoover • Franklin D. Roosevelt and the “Forgotten Man” o First used by William Graham Sumner in his article The Forgotten Man to refer to the person compelled to pay for reformist programs o Refer to those at the bottom of the economic government whom the state (in Roosevelt's view and in the general social humanitarian approach) needed to help o Roosevelt used the term in a fireside chat (radio address) he gave on April 7, 1932 o Roosevelt used the term to describe the poor men who needed money and were not getting it, promoting his New Deal • Rural issues in the campaign of 1932 • “Underconsumptionist” analysis of the Great Depression • Banking legislation/ FDIC o Under the Banking Act of 1933 o Established the FDIC as a temporary government corporation o Gave the FDIC authority to provide deposit insurance to banks and to regulate and supervise state non-member banks o Funded the FDIC with initial loans of $289 million through the U.S. Treasury and the Federal Reserve • Unemployment and work relief/ CCC o A public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 17–23 • Farm legislation/ AAA o The Act had to eliminate surplus production to accomplish its goal of parity – raising crop prices o Offered landowners reduction contracts – they agreed not to grow cotton on a portion of their land o Landowners received compensation for what they would have normally gotten from those acres o They were required to pay the tenant farmers and sharecroppers on their land a portion of the money • “Second” New Deal (after 1935): Social Security, WPA, Farm Security Administration • “Countervailing power”: a New Deal for labor: Wagner Act 1935 • Rural electrification and soil conservation: Tennessee Valley Authority • Did the New Deal “work”? • Image vs. reality: who did the New Deal help? • Dorothea Lange, “Migrant Mother” 1936 o Photo journalist – Best-known picture is titled "Migrant Mother" o Her photographs humanized the consequences of the Great Depression • What in the end happened to rural migrants? • Non-starters: low-cost housing and health insurance • “When Affirmative Action Was White” • Liberals tack to the right during World War II • Economist John Maynard Keynes/ Keynesianism o Refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions o If the amount of money being saved exceeds the amount being invested – which can happen if interest rates are too high – then unemployment will rise • New Deal Coalition o Modern Democratic Party WWII • Intro: New Deal recap o WWII and the distinctive American experience • Did the New Deal work? o Yes! Paved the way for a secure middle class, and paved the way for the Democratic Party o The security was really only for the white middle class o Southern democrats had key positions, which prevented a number of programs for the African Americans • In the 1940s there isn't a clear bipartisan for parties o They are politically divided by regions: Southern, Northern, Urban, etc. o Very unstable and not set as is it is today. • Spurred recovery was from the spending in WWII • The military and war machines that raised government spending and the GDP of the country The War of Machine • Most other countries were occupied twice, civilian deaths were experienced • American's capacity to create an amount of stuff which put America on an advantage, the reason allies were able to win the war • America was in a geographical location where long-range bombs could not reach • Germany and Japan's strategy was to attack quick and powerful, but it didn't work because Americans had a unique industrial advantage -- America also had time to get their economy moving again • America fought a war of machines rather than a war of men, where as the Soviets fought with men • Decisive interactions of time, men and material • Europe needed the help, the could not fight alone o After WWII in Europe there was a heavy period of social welfare • Experience of war between US and Europe was completely different • After WWII America rises to be the super economic and military power • The Soviet Union stopped the German advance within the Soviet Union • Allure of air power -- used for bombing • Political economy of war mobilization vs. the new deal • Instead of containing businesses, the government begins to utilize the big businesses in America to build • A lot of the money came from borrowing from private banks, buying war bonds, and creation of new high taxes -- WWII was when America became a tax paying society • Irving Berlin: "I paid my income taxes today" (1942) -- referenced being on same sides as Rockefeller • Quantity over quality/mass production techniques • Germans chose variety and quality o Americans emphasized economy of scales and mass production o Making a bunch of the same things and having a worker do only one job • Ex: Liberty Ship -- could be put together in 40 days through welding and even used the help of women even in the industrial setting • By 1944 the Americans were creating 60% of the allies's war goods • The atomic bomb o Only the US could build this bomb at the time, they had the money and resources o Took lots and lots of electricity World War II and American Society • Most of the war was involved in the east and the midwest • Women were called to work in the defense industry to fight the war effort • Singled women had always worked, but it was the first that married women came to work • After WWII a lot of the women wanted to stay and work • Why are women called to work? • Is this work advertised as temporary or permanent? • Is the work same for women and men? Orgins of the Cold War Historical Debate "Historiography" Given three ways to approach the questions: traditionalist, the revisionists, post-revisionist Persuasive elements to all these Traditionalist -- blame everything on the Soviets, the US was motivated by high ideals, the Soviets got in the way of democracy and free trade for everyone, created international institutions to make sure everything went okay but the Soviets were getting in the way -- this was the views by almost everyone in the 1960s, until the Vietnam area Revisionist -- Challenged the overly patriotic view which blamed the USSR to everything, placed either equal or more blame on the US, Soviet Union wanted ideological dominance on their side of the world, the US is no different from the USSR -- There was little the west could have done to stop the influence of the USSR -- GB and US kept the Manhattan Project a secret, and the US immediately cut off aid to the USSR after WWII Post-Revisionist -- Since 1992 the archives have been opened up, and explored misunderstandings between the two sides -- Side step the position of blame, no way to come to a decisions. Except the idea that Soviet expansions set the Cold War, Americans failed to understand that Stalin was not after world dominance, just security in Eastern Europe -- Stalin was actually staying strictly within the agreements of the sphere of influences Joseph Stalin/Hitler • Soviet army was in occupation in almost all of eastern Europe, because it was the path they took to defeat Germany • Eastern advances were all by the Red Army • Stalin had no intentions of liberating anyone • Stalin wanted to make sure the Germans would never ever invade Russia again, it had been twice in both WWI and WWII -- Stalin was absolutely obsessed with security Yalta Conference • Americans believed that they had gotten Stalin to have the Eastern European countries have free elections • Stalin did not think he was agreeing to free elections • Declaration on Liberated Europe • Stalin wanted more than just Eastern Europe, influencing other regions of the world -- creating the solidification of the traditional world view -- we no longer believe these entirely Franklin Roosevelt/Winston Churchill • Sphere of Influences Agreement • Americans and the British had agreed that Stalin could keep the territories he had acquired • Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary in the Soviet Sphere and Greece was with the Anglo- Americans • Tito's Yugoslavia was supporting the Greek communist, NOT Stalin • Stalin did not meddle with the set western sphere of influence -- but his character fused the Cold War, but his paranoia had boundaries • US failed to recognize that communist wasn't a single directed ideology directed from Moscow 1946: a Crucial Year • It appeared that the Soviets were exert influences outside of Eastern Europe and into the areas of the British Empire • Franklin Roosevelt told GB that its not right to be fighting for democracy while upholding empires around the world • Iran was the source of the oil supply and fueled almost all of the British Navy • British and US believed that the Soviet Army were taking all of Iran, and Russia evacuated after being told so -- from this the US believed that the Soviets were pursuing to takeover everything and the Russians would leave if the US flexed their power George Kennan's Long Telegram • Crystalized the view that influenced America almost throughout the entire Cold War • Soviet state cannot have peaceful coexistence • Communism and capitalism cannot stand together, and the Soviets will expand everywhere • Soviet will try to take over real estate and undermine capitalist • Kennan was a critic of the arms race and of NATO Expanding the Cold War Discussion: 1946 -- The Soviet Perspective • Was is more than just paranoia? • Soviets blame America for almost all the same roots that America blame the Soviet I. Europe 1947 - 1949 Aid to Greece and Turkey/Truman Doctrine 1947 • GB has they no longer have the influence to support Greece and didn't have the resource to remain stability • Great Britain values Greece and Turkey because the Mediterranean gateway to other empires and to oil • Greek communist wanted a full on civil war after WWII -- it appeared to GB that the Soviets were behind this, putting pressure on Greece and Turkey • If one fell all would fall -- one rotten apple • Truman successfully appeals to congress for aid in Turkey and Greece -- Truman Doctrine -- stated it was the American's job to intervene anywhere to assist the free peoples of the world • As influential as it was, Stalin didn't care and wasn't effect, wasn't that invested in the Greek or Turkish situation -- he was invested in GERMANY European Crisis 1947 • The hearts of Europe was down, the winter was the worst and everything was scarce • No one knew what Europe's future would look like • Problem was tied up with the question of Germany -- occupied by the allies from the west and the Soviets of the east -- Berlin is divided • Germany was divided by the troops on the ground, Allies could not agree what to do with Germany • Decided they needed to build Germany back up as a country because the economy of Europe depended on it, if you don't build it back up theres no way to have the economy back up • France and Soviet wanted reparations • Communism was real even in western Europe, Stalin didn't control it but the ideology was growing -- economic downfall simply appealed in communism Marshall Plan • American offered cash grant. Marshall Plan was grants, not loans, the difference between after WWI & WWII -- giving billions of dollars to Europe The Division of Germany • Went ahead and created a West Germany without waiting for the Soviet • Soviet didn't really care about Berlin, he used it as a bargaining tool • GB decided to convince America to start the Berlin Airlift -- Allies would not quit on the city or abandon plans to establish a West Germany • Wedge that created a military presences in Europe NATO • "Militarizing" the MArshall Plan: the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949 • An attack on one is an attack on all • The British were pushing for NATO, because they were sensing that they were losing power in the world and wanted the Americans to take it up • NATO allowed France to cover and agree to a West German states • Marshall Plan + NATO were important for a French and German cooperation II. The Remaining Shocks of 1949 Soviets get the bomb • Soviets had created an atomic bomb as well • Changes the playing field for the US Chiang Kai-Shek/Chinese Nationalist • Communist won in 1949 • Mao had turned China communist party • US was building up Japan and didn't worry too much about China • Popular outcry in the US, but the Truman government was blamed for loosing China • "Who lost China?" • By 1950, the communist in the world had taken a shift and doubled overnight Politics in the 1940’s I. Postwar Legacies of the New Deal and WWII Federal Government and Economic Security • Americans did not interact with the federal government prior FDR and the Presidency/Expansion of Executive Branch • FDR assured Americans that direct aid is okay, its only going to rescue capitalism • Employment Act/Council of Economic Advisors -- duty to promote max employment -- a lot of liberals at the time waned the government to guarantee a job, but the government could only promote -- federal power in the executive branch • Atomic Energy Act/Atomic Energy Commission -- held the potential to produce a lot of inexpensive electric energy, gave the president and executive branch a lot of authority on having the final word on the atomic energy • National Security Act/Department of Defense, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Council - - gave the president centralized power over defense and foreign policy -- created new instruments: consolidated all the branches of the military into the Department of the Defense/Secretary of Defense, CIA was allowed to operate internationally, NSC had the head of all the branches into one council • FDR left a policy left for his successors Transformation of Political Party System • Democratic party was the majority • New Deal Coalition survived the war, and the coalition that it built leads the way in the 1960s • Industrial Works/ORganized Workers: Unions legal right to demand that they had the right to bargain with their employers -- Cooperated with governments and overlapped with organized labor • Catholics and Jews: became professional or middle-class people after the war • African-Americans: Couldn't vote in the south yet, but could in the north -- during the war they moved upward and experienced more political influence -- Up into the New Deal African Americans were Republican and party of the party of Abraham Lincoln • White Southerners: Key part of the democratic party and very unstable -- south was the poorest part of the country and extremely rural which would be helped by the New Deal -- they wanted federal money but no federal intrusion of race relations • The topic of race is what makes the New Deal Coalition unstable The US as the "Arsenal of Democracy" • United States pulls itself out of the Great Depression -- unique experience • The war ended the struggle against the big businesses -- the dilemma of split them up or regulate? but WWII ended this -- WWII showed that there can be high wages for everyone and with cooperation there could be economic growth for everyone without worrying about the inter-workings of how business manage • John M. Keynes: "everyone would benefit from a bigger pie" -- liberals were far more willing to cooperate with businesses -- profits will still be high, but if Americans have more money in their pockets and higher purchasing power II. Harry Truman and the Election of 1948 Obstacles to expanding the New Deal • Came into office under the shadows of FDR and wanted him to expand the New Deal, and pick up where he left off -- there were a lot of obstacles • After the war, people's lives were getting better, the crisis had passed and there aren't a whole lot of dirt poor people to feel sorry for anymore and it's an independence force that pushes the New Deal era away • "Universal healthcare, we should have passed in 1947 or we wouldn't be in the problem we are today" • Truman wasn't a very good politician • He did ask congress for more public policy, universal healthcare system, public housing -- he wanted to extend but didn't get what he wanted 1945 - 1947: Reconversion and the Political of Inflation • Going from wartime to peacetime • Middle-class consumers did not like prices rising, blamed labor unions and farmers because they were getting more government funding • Office of Price Administrations (OPA): keeping a cap on prices, a lot of money not chasing not a lot of stuff -- at the time I did not seem fair to let businesses set their prices -- congress dismantled the OPA -- everyone hated Truman • Taft-Hartley: The Politics of Civil Rights • Truman wants to win back liberals by directing to civil rights which sets out the agenda for the next 20 years • "To secure these rights" 1947 • "Dixiecrats"/Strom Thurmond • The Election of 1948/the New Deal Coalition o Truman wins by a landslide and no one thought he was going to win o He did it by reassembling the New Deal Coalition added a strident anti-communist, started the loyalty oath to kick communist out of the government o Cold War made Truman seem like a hero against communism The Korean War (1950-1953) I. Intro: The Importance of the “Forgotten War” • Sandwiched in-between the WWII and the Vietnam War • Just an armistice no peace treaty, even today • Why should we care about the Korean War? II. “Higher gears”: revving up the arms race • Truman Admin went ahead with creating the H-Bomb and the start of NSC-68 -- Korean War precipitated it's existence • The H-Bomb; fission v. fusion; o Atomic bomb came from the splitting of atomics, the hydrogen bombs was a fission reaction like starts that made a fusion reaction o This would be 100x stronger than the atomic bomb • Edward Teller -- one of the workers of the Manhattan Project • Two sides and views on these bombs -- power of the H-bomb seemed dangerous and redundant • George Kennan and J. Robert Oppenheimer were both against the H-bomb o Truman was for the H-bomb because he was being pressured and feared that the Soviets would get it as well -- US exploded their first H-bomb in a remote island which was obliterated o Soviets followed after and created an H-bomb as well • NSC-68 April 1950 -- National Security Council o Saw the Soviet Union as a danger and believed they needed a military build up • Strongpoint (Kennan) vs. perimeter (NSC-68) defense • Only thought they needed to build up strongpoints and have national interest linked to these strong points (Japan, West Germany) • Perimeter offense -- wasn't accepted immediately, Truman sat on it for awhile o Was approved and 2 months later the North attack the South in Korea III. The Korean Surprise: June 1950 • 38 parallel • Kim Il-sung (North) -- Picked by the Soviet Union • Syngman Rhee (South) -- Picked by popular election o Both leaders wanted the unification of the country o Rhee didn't get US approval for unification, but Kim got the approval from China o Stalin didn't play much of a support he told them to look to Mao • North Korea had to make sure that the US would not intervene, but because they did not play much apart in China o Also, Kim did not think the US cared about Korea o Kim pretended that the South invaded the North and he went over the parallel to the South • South Korean forces would have not lasted 15 days without the US forces, everyone was shocked at how quickly the US threw in troops o US probably would not have intervened if they did guerrilla warfare or covert warfare o UN operation passed • At first it seemed that North Koreans would win, pushed all the way down to Pusan in Sept of 1950 • Dean Acheson Jan. 1950: Korea not in defense interests • General Douglas MacArthur, hero of the Pacific o Everyone knew who he was o Captured the Philippines o Lead the island hopping in WWII o MacArthur commanded a D-Day like attack at Inchon -- a very risky idea that was very successful and drove the North Korea back out of South Korea • MacArthur demanded that the troops keep moving to the Yalu River -- a lot of domestic interests were pushing, "The free world depends on it" • MacArthur assured Truman at Wake Island that the Chinese would no intervene, he said they were no longer fearful of the Chinese and MacArthur could not have been more wrong • Enter the Chinese Nov. 1950 • MacArthur’s ouster 1951 “…old soldiers never die, they just fade away…” • The Chinese forces pushed the back down below the 38th parallel • Truman was in-between MAcArthur who wanted Total Victory at the Yalu River vs. the population back home • Limited wars vs. “total victory” o Truman is outraged at MacArthur, MacArthur sends a letter to the House of Representatives which was the last straw for Truman which caused him to be dismissed • Korean War was the first war that wasn't a clear win -- MacArthur is from the WWII era when a win is a win IV. Consequences and Legacies • NSC-68 gets green light; defense budget quadruples • Red scares at home… 1. First shooting war in the Cold War, had nuclear weapons, but did not use them. Was a fear of atomic weapons. Americans feared that it would be the Soviets into the war. 2. Two of the world major militaries fought, US Soldiers v. Chinese Soldiers -- hardened the relations -- US has a mutual security pack with Taiwan and South Korea 3. Definitively demilitarized the United States -- US moved to demobilize after WWII and began to disarm, but the Korean was a powerful factor to re-arm and the defense budget tripled -- Korean War solidified their military power 4. Had repercussions in Europe -- remilitarized West Germany, what Stalin feared the very most 5. US changed it's position on war in IndoChina -- after Korean War, US gives aid to French to fight the IndoChina War, the beginnings of the Vietnam War 6. Heighten sense of anti-communism Red Scare Document discussion: Congressional Record, 1950 • Connects the homosexuals to the Red Scare and communism • Ties homosexually back to the Russians in a couple of occasions • Language: communist and fellow traveler -- collapse everyone into leftist conspiracy • Saying that homosexuals are very vulnerable and easily able to blackmail, therefore a threat to the national security • Gays and lesbians lost there jobs • More than twice the number of people than those were actually communist I. Background Conditions American Communist Party (est. 1919 after Russian Rev.) • Cadres, front groups, and “fellow travelers” • Repression of communism was justified that they were committed to the overthrow of the US government which that in itself was a crime • Most communist were for labor unions, etc.not specifically aimed at the government • Many people joined organizations that took similar rights of communism • Communists were the only group that 100% supported civil rights for African Americans • Front group/fellow traveler were making common causes as communist obsessed The “popular front” • 1930s cooperation between liberals and communists on questions of economic and racial justice • Liberals began to be seen as just as bad at communist The Anti-Communist Network • Started movement in the 30s and is in place by the 40s • They wanted to organize labors and communist party members often took the lead • J. Edgar Hoover: FBI officer who created a counter-intelligent, obsessed with anti-communism, and a gay-bater and left-wing politics, dedicated his career to combatting anyone who would disrupt order • Hoover's personal agenda was far to the right of the files • Hoover spent a lot of time trying to bring down Martin Luther King • Included State Police and FBI -- FBI gathered information on people and hand their files to employers • Conservative Coalition Congress • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC, est. 1938) -- investigate communist activity in the labor movements -- Hoover feeds them a lot of information • American federal government -- series of legislations passed during WWII that servedas a legal base for the firing and investigations 1939 Hatch Act/ 1940 Voorhis Act/ 1940 Smith Act • Hatch: Barred Communist Nazis from government • Voorhis: Groups with foreign affiliations had to inform the government • Smith: Illegal to teach or act in the overthrow of the government, made speech a criminal activity Truman’s Loyalty-Security Program • After the war the executive branch more steps • Weaved out the communist in congress and put them on trial • Became seen as criminals II. The Real Spies Case officers • Whittaker Chambers encouraged people in the FDR Admin to provide information, then passed on the information to the Soviet • Chambers did not like the Soviets by the 1930, had a change of heart and opened up to the FBI Sources: Alger Hiss, Harry Dexter White Atomic espionage: Klaus Fuchs, Steve Nelson • When WWII began the Soviets put spies into the atomic bomb • Lots of people would Ideology pass atomic information that gave them 1 or 2 years of their own • FBI knew about atomic spy in general but not all of it • Nelson was passing information from the CAL science lab -- but Nelson was an actual communist party leader which is what stemmed Hoover's belief that communist leaders were all to be convicted in treason • FBI sent an additional amount of agents to the Bay Area The New Yorkers: Julius Rosenberg • Example of someone executed in 1950 • Wasn't nearly involved in the spy network Elizabeth Bentley, goes to FBI in 1945 • Said she was attracted to communism out of idealism • Most people were motivate to pass on information, started out during the depression, but during WWII atomic spies were motivated by the fact that the Russians were getting killed the most and it wasn't fair that Russia didn't know this technology • Ideology of World Peace -- should not be exclusive to US and Britain • Bentley turned herself in, and named a lot of people • Soviet spying was over in 1945, have to regroup and pay for information after Bentley -- thats when the Red Scare begins • Bentley leaked her story to a newspaper Venona Project • During WWII the army had decode Soviet Wartime Cables • Showing who was the actual spies, but the government did not release, creating hysteria HUAC; the “pumpkin papers” • Chambers testifies • Alger Hiss is charged and denies • Leads him tom a pumpkin in his farm and had proof that there was a spy ring • Conservatives loved the pumpkin papers because it seemed to prove that there was a conspiracy • Many conservatives still believe there were hundreds more traders in government • Richard Nixon was right about Hiss and continued to be a crusader III. Joseph McCarthy • Said he had a list of 205 people working in the government, but kept changing the number • Continued to make up charges • 4 years he captured the limelight • Represented religious and class tensions -- resented the eastern Protestant establishment • Nobody tried to stop him -- everyone know he was recycling cases but no one did anything • Investigative journalist didn't do anything Speech at Wheeling, West Virginia Feb. 1950 Army–McCarthy Hearings 1954 • Isn't brought down until he accuses the army Consensus and Consumption Intro: The “Age of Consensus”: late 1940s–early 1960s “liberal conservatism” or “liberal consensus" I. Components of Consensus: Anti-communism • In foreign affairs there was a common ground • Domestic affairs • No conservative we're going to issue anything against the government, it's not the way it was today • There was a conservative liberalism in the 1950s • Anti-communism eliminated
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