[COM CM 380] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 37 pages long Study Guide!

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COM CM 380
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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CM380 Communication Theory Test 2
1
Stereotyping of Social Groups
2.25.16
*RP #3 due Thursday
- Stages of Minority Portrayals
o Nonrecognition
o Ridicule
o Regulation
o Respect
- Looking at a particular context:
o Example: Video games
o Stats: Games sales outshine box office sales between 10.5 billion to 11.2 billion
per year
- Who is the average gamer?
o 29 year old male (industry standards)
o 8-18 year olds play 21 min per day (girls 12 minutes, boys 41 minutes)
- ESRB Ratings
o Rates 1000 games per year
o EC (early childhood), E, E10+, T , M (Mature Audiences 17+), A (Adults 18+),
RP (Rate Pending)
- ESRB Content Descriptors
o Sexual themes, levels of nudity, levels of violence, crude humor, slapstick humor,
gambling, drug use, alcohol use, tobacco use, blood and gore
- Quote from the industry (Jay Adan)
o “We’ve been working really closely with ESRB from day one. Everyone know
what the limits are for violence because everyone has pushed that envelope. But
no one knows where the limits are for sex and nudity.”
o What is it about sex and nudity? In comparison with violence?
Sex is part of human nature
Sex and nudity are more implicit than violence which is explicit
Everybody knows what violence is on an international level
o Social Distance Theory (space, different cultural preferences)
- Video game trailer promotion
o Dead or Alive: Volleyball
o Stereotypical, Hyper feminized women (expressions, voice, movements, bodies)
o Body image, women were sexualized, a lot more skin
- Beasley and Standley 2002
o Shirts vs Skins: Clothing as an Indicator of Gender Role Stereotyping in Video
Games
o What theories were applied to examine gender role stereotyping in video games?
o Applied Gender Schema Theory
Created perceptions of certain genders
Exposure to stereotyped, sexual interactions on provokes schema
categorizing women as sexual, submissive, and less intelligent than men
What happens to repeated exposure to these sexual portrayals?
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CM380 Communication Theory Test 2
2
These ideas stay in the front of your mind and are constantly
activated schema, reinforced by repeated exposure
o Applied Social Learning Theory
Modeling Effects
Model after behaviors of characters in the games
Maybe women would potentially learn to be more submissive and
feel that they need to behave or dress more provocatively
Attention
Interactivity: game requires players attention
Retention
Repeated trials expose players to stereotyped portrayals making
them easy to remember
Reproduction
Remembered portrayals may be carried outside of the game world
Motivation
Encouragement through high scores or peer recognition
o Method: content analysis to examine the portrayal of women, how much skin was
showing
o Schema: mental structure representing an aspect of the world,
structured/organized clusters of preconceived ideas and assumptions used to
interpret/process information (schemas = filing cabinets, routine in your local
grocery store)
o Main Findings: did look at 47 games from different counsels, 597 characters in
the games, only 82 were women (13.74%); Of the 597 characters coded, only 82
(13.74%) were women. The Nintendo 64 games had the fewest number of female
characters, and the majority of the female characters wore clothing that exposed
more skin than the male characters (looked at sleeve length, neckline, lower body)
- Heuristics: we use mental short cuts to make quick judgments, any approach to problem
solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method not guaranteed to be
optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals
- DQ: Cause vs Effect
o Are dolls or video games instinctively attractive to their female and male target
markets or is it because of the industry’s influence and market strategies?
E.g., American Girl, Bratz, Barbie are tailored to females. What about
dolls for males? Action figures?
o Male Objectification
What about male objectification/false depiction of males? Magic Mike?
- DQ: Role of Female Characters
o Female characters often portrayed as vulnerable and powerless objects waiting for
male protagonist’s rescue
o E.g., Princess Peach in Super Mario
o Future research should examine impact of game world vs real world
- Graphic Content Japan Video
o Hentai games with girlish looking characters (rape, revenge, etc.)
o “Rape Lay” game goes viral, in order to advance you have to rape a female
character
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