Theory and Process of Communication Complete Notes: Part 2 - 92% on final

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Boston University
Mass Communication, Advertising & Public Relations
COM CM 380

COM CM 380 Theory – Exam II Review Sheet • Be able to explain the elements of Lasswell’s definition of media effects as “who/says what/in which channel/to whom/with what effect” LASWELL: “who says what in which channel to whom with what effect” Source (formulator) -> message (content) -> channel (medium)-> receiver -> outcome/consequences One way process • Understand the differences between "effects" theories and "critical" theories. EFFECTS THEORIES If I see something, what is going to be the effect on the audience? CRITCAL CULTURAL STUDIES Interpretation, critique it, take a stand How can we reconcile? • Explain McLuhan’s expression “The Medium is the Message” Classic Medium Theory: Mcluhan’s The medium is the message Medium is the channel The medium matters, not the content • Understand New Media Theory including “social interaction” and “social integration” New Media Theory Move to two way, democratized communication Social interaction: how close face to face Social integration: ritual of use • Define "diffusion of innovation" How, why and at what rate new ideas and technology spreads through cultures Early adopters Critical mass Late adopters • Know the Uses and Gratifications model including expectancy-value theory and dependency theory USES & GRATIFICATIONS Considers an active audience that makes choices (selective exposure) How do viewers use media? Focuses on • Motives (inclusion, pleasure, relaxation, mood management, information, ritualized) • Social and psychological antecedents • Effects 1. media use is goal directed, purposive and motivated 2. people initiate selection and use to satisfy needs or desires 3. a host of social and psychological factors mediate behavior 4. media compete with other forms of communication 5. people are typically more influential than the media Expectancy – value theory – attitudes are developed and modified based on assessments about beliefs and values, determine the mental calculations that take place in attitude development. Dependency Theory Excessive dependence on medium = more influence and power • Know the following theories: Magic Bullet/Hypodermic Needle Theory Limited Effects: Klapper’s Reinforcement Approach Magic Bullet/Hypodermic Needle Theory Intended message is directly received and wholly accepted by the receiver, direct effect Klapper’s Reinforcement Approach People seek out and remember information that provides cognitive support for their pre- existing attitudes and beliefs • Know the difference between catharsis, stimulation, excitation transfer, and desensitization Catharsis Relief/Release It just needs to be relived to stop it from being acted out Arousal Continued stimulation Arousal is there for a long time, some of the population is always going to want to act out on it Physiologically aroused and then react to it Excitation Transfer Strong stimulation can carry over from one emotion to another Just get stimulated by a media and then it gets transferred to different emotions and actions Doesn’t have to be the same emotion Desensitization Overtime, one loses sensation -> motivation to increase stimulus • Know elements of Cultivation theory: including “mean world” syndrome, “mainstreaming,” “resonance” CULTIVATION Media creates its own reality Overtime, viewers see as normal (drip, drip effect) Looks at the amount of viewing Heavy viewers vs. light viewers Mostly television Cultural Indicators Things become normal See the same messages over and over on television and becomes reality Usually based on fiction Mainstreaming Common outlook on the world: particularly politics and economics Mean World Syndrome World is scary, people cannot be trusted Resonance When viewers real life environment is like the world of TV, these viewers are especially susceptible to TV cultivating power • Know Priming Theory and how it differs from simple Stimulation Theory and Social Learning Theory PRIMING Cognitive pathways are created as a result of exposure to repeated stimulation that influence behavior Getting someone ready for something, aroused and created cognitive pathways for behavior Overtime, something becomes associated a certain way, create connections in our brain, see it and then act it See something, act accordingly Stimulation Theory Media excites us, that’s why we like it so much SOCIAL LEARNING See it, think about it, what have we learned, then do it based on rewards and punishments in past BANDURAS SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY OR SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY Humans are neither driven by internal forces nor buffered helpless by external factors Experiences are cognitively mediated Humans are constantly hypothesizing about which behaviors will succeed Humans recognize feedback and then try to predict future consequences Not just about imitation, about motivation See past experiences and then make a decision to act or not Weigh consequences (difference from priming) • Know the difference between the various levels of learning: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Modeling Classical Conditioning Direction Association between two stimuli Not thinking about, just associative Associating with each other Ex: bell rings = food Operant Conditioning Learned association through direct reward/punishment Personally experienced the reward/punishment Ex: hit on head Modeling Vicarious (media) learning through observed reward/punishment (not simple mimicry) • Specifically know elements of Bandera’s Social Cognitive or Social Learning Theory: exposure, attention, retention, ability to physically reproduce behavior, and especially motivation FOUR MODELING STAGES 1. Attention/Availability Need to choose or pay attention 2. Retention Need to remember and be able to recall 3. Motor Reproduction Must be able to physically replicate 4. Motivation Must be motivated to model action – weight potential consequences Often influences by previous rewards and punishments • Know Agenda Setting and factors involved: first and second levels, agenda building vs. agenda setting, define "framing" AGENDA SETTING Give audience impression of what is important, what stories do producers pick? stories picked over and over, setting the agenda, has motivation as opposed to cultivation Early AST “Media don’t tell us what to think.. media tell us what to think about” Later AST “Media tell us what to think about and how to think about some objects” Agenda Setting (Shaping) vs. Agenda Building (reciprocity) Agenda setting -> effect of the media agenda on society, transfer of the media agenda to the public agenda Agenda building -> some degree of reciprocity between the mass media and society where both media and public agendas influence public policy Agenda Setting Finding: High relevance + high uncertainty = high need for orientation = avid consumers = strong A.S. effects 1 level Salience of object nd 2 level Salience of attributes “Pictures in our heads” Framing How do we portray this? Media supply a context and suggest what the issue is through the use of 1. Selection 2. Emphasis 3. Exclusion 4. Elaboration • Know the historical milestones of mass media research, such as: “Payne Fund Studies, “Seduction of the Innocent” comic book scare, Surgeon General's reports, Telecomm Act of 1996 SEX AND VIOLENCE IN THE MEDIA Historical Research: 1. 1920s Payne Fund Studies (rise in film popularity) 2. 1950s Seduction of the Innocent (wertham linked comic books to juvenile delinquency) 3. 1970s Surgeon Generals Report (noted concern of medias effects on children) 4. 1996 Telecommunications Act (Introduced Parental Control Technology (vchip) and tv rating system) • Know the conditions of "obscenity" OBSCENITY 1. Material appeals to prurient interest in sex (enjoyable) 2. Patently offensive by community standards 3. Lacks value (artistic, scientific) • Know the steps of the Four-Factor Syndrome as it applies to pornography use Four Factor Syndrome (consuming pornography) 1. Addiction: wanting more 2. Escalation: craving more explicit content 3. Desensitization: illegal, antisocial material becomes less shocking 4. Acting Out: tendency to copy behavior • Define: Spiral of Silence Theory, Parasocial Interaction, Two-Step Flow Hypothesis , Hegemony, Third Person Effect Spiral of Silence Fear of isolation, if we believe our opinions are unpopular, we will stay silent Oppressed group becomes more oppressed when speak out PARASOCIAL INTERACTION (Horton & Wohl 1956) Interact with celebrities Follow celebrities’ lives through media Use the media to gratify us and have a relationship with celebrity Often associated with uses and gratifications Factors: 1. Perceived Realism (attraction to figures: social and physical) 2. Functional alternative to social interaction 3. Identification vs. affinity (I want to be like them vs. I feel for them) 4. Breaking the “4 wall” – see into their personal lives 5. Credible persona – ex: miley cyrus 6. Media Outlets – 24 hours coverage, addition of personalized communication (Twitter) Hegemony (concept that one culture co-opts another culture – take over so their view becomes the culture view) Third Person Effect (people tend to perceive that mass communicated messages have a differential influence on themselves and others, based on personal biases, because of this people tend to take action to counteract the messages’ influence, sees as having a greater effect on others than on oneself “I will not be persuaded, but they will”, can lead to an action not because of its impact on those to who it is directed but because other 3 persons think that it will have an impact on its audience • Understand mood management and the enjoyment of the genres of entertainment media: drama, humor, horror, suspense, and sports ENTERTAINMENT THEORY Incorporation of uses and gratifications and behavioral approach Selective Exposure Subconscious: Impulse decisions Conscious: Mood management What kind of shows, what genre do I choose? Enjoyment Drama: conflict, disposition, satisfying results Humor: incongruity/resolution, superiority, relief theories (Freud), physiological: laughter Sports: disposition, suspense (gender) Suspense: paradox of tension Horror: mastery, comfort (natural vs supernatural • Also understand the role of disposition Disposition theory: do we like the characters? How do we feel about certain characters? Extend emotions and judgments on characters and that determines if we like them or not. • Know the influence of tobacco, alcohol, and food advertisements particularly on children and adolescents HEALTH AND PROSOCIAL MESSAGES Effect of Advertisements on He
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