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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Tracy Dunne

Chapter 1 Notes Psychology – the scientific study of behavior and the mind Behavior – actions and responses that we can directly observe and measure. (Observable) Mind – internal states and processes – Inferred from behavior 5 Goals of Psychology Describe Understand Predict Influence Apply Critical Thinking – Taking an active role in the world around us; ability to evaluate the validity of information presented to us as fact 2 types of research Basic Applied Psychology is a multi factorial science Learning Experiences Mental State Biological Make up Cultural Biases Wilhelm Wundt – Father of Psychology Edward Titchener Structuralism Functionalism – William James Psychodynamic Perspective Freud Seeks causes of behavior from within the inner workings of our personality Emphasizes 1. role of unconscious processes 2. unresolved conflicts from the past Legacy of Psychodynamic perspective – Research on Personality, Psychological Makeup, Psychological Disorders, Aggression, Childhood Experiences, Dreams, Therapeutic Treatments Psychoanalysis – analysis of the internal and unconscious, complex psychological forces. Freud’s premise 1.Human beings have powerful inborn aggressive and sexual drives 2. Adult personality is determined by childhood experiences Defense Mechanisms – Psychodynamic Conflict – between impulses (drives) and defenses Behavioral Perspective External environment alone is responsible for governing our actions (behaviors) Behavior is determined by 2 things 1. Habits 2. Stimuli Knowledge is gained empirically John Locke – Tabula Rasa Ivan Pavlov – Classical Conditioning Edward Thorndike – Thorndike’s Law of Effect John Watson – only subject matter that counts is observable behavior BF Skinner – Operant Conditioning Humanist Perspective Emphasizes: 1. Free will 2. Innate tendency towards growth 3. Attempt to find meaning in one’s existence 4. Conscious awareness Rejected Psychodynamic and Behavioral Perspectives – Why? Self Actualization - Abraham Maslow Cognitive Perspective Examines how we perceive, store and organize information Concerned with HOW we think Gestalt psychology – Holistic processing Cognitive neuroscience – electrical recording and brain imaging techniques to investigate behavior and brain functioning Sociocultural Perspective Investigates how social environment and cultural learning influence thoughts and behaviors Culture – shared set of –values-beliefs-traditions-behaviors Social Norms Socialization Cross-cultural Psychology – Individualism, Collectivism Biological Perspective Examines brain processes in conjunction with bodily functions, e.g. hormones Behavioral Neuroscience Karl Lashley – research led to Brain Mapping Donald Hebb – research led to discovery of Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters – brain chemicals that allow neural communication and cause action Behavioral genetic research – examines how behavioral tendencies are influenced by genetic factors Evolutionary Psychology- heavily incorporates Darwin’s Evolutionary Theory Natural Selection, Survival of the Fittest Chapter 4 Notes Neurons: 3 Main Parts of Neuron- Glial Cells- Myelin/Myelin Sheath/ Myelinization- Neural Impulses caused via Action Potentials Synapse- 5 Steps of Chemical (Neurotransmitter) Communication Synthesis- St
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