Exam 3 Notes .docx

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Tracy Dunne

Exam 3 notes Motivation and Emotion Motivation – Process that influences the direction, persistence and strength of a goal directed behavior. Where do motivations come from? Drive Reduction Theory – physiological need creates a state of internal tension or arousal (drive) that motivates an organism to behave in such a way to reduce this tension. We are “pushed” by physiological need to reduce drives. We are “pulled” by incentives to reduce drives. Incentives: Extrinsic or Intrinsic Extrinsic  For an external reward Intrinsic  For own internal benefit Abraham Maslow also took into account striving for personal growth (SELF ACTUALIZATION) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Deficiency needs, growth needs. Hunger Physiological motivations: Glucose level changes, hormones e.g. Leptin Psychological motivations: Conditioning, memory Cultural motivations: can influence tastes Body Image – Eating Disorders Anorexia: description? symptoms? causes/ common traits? Perfectionism, Disapproving parents, need for control Bulimia: description? symptoms? causes/ common traits? Loss of self control, anxiety, depression, lack of stable personality Sex Physiologically based motive but strongly influenced by learning and values. Physiological motivations: Sex hormones (estrogen, testosterone) Psychological motivations: Psychological stimulation – desire, fantasies Cultural motivations: social norms on acceptable/unacceptable behaviors Gender based differences on casual sex How does pornography influence sexual behavior? Social Learning Theory – If watched, can learn Catharsis Principle – If watched, prevents outburst of desires in real life Sexual orientation – 3 dimensions Determinants of sexual orientation - Environmental factors? Biological factors? Psychological factors? Desire toAffiliate: Maslow 4 basic psychological reasons: SSAC – Stimulation, Support,Attention, Comparison to obtain positive stimulation to receive emotional support to gain attention to permit social comparison Seeking a Mate: Sexual Strategies Theory- Choosing mate based on inherent tendencies (shaped to adapt problems faced) Social Structure Theory- Society gives roles to men and women, forced to choose mate Need for achievement Development across the Lifespan 4 major issues in Devp. Psych.: 1. Nature v. Nurture 2. Critical v. Sensitive periods 3. Stages and continuity of development 4. Stability v. change in characteristics over lifespan Cognitive Development: Piaget: Schemas – Groupings of things we percieve Assimilation – Puts new experience into existing schemas Accomodation – Puts into and changes existing schemas Piaget’s 4 stages: Sensorimotor 0 – 2 years: Object permanence, stranger anxiety, sensory experience Preoperational 2-6 years: Think in words, pretend play, Egocentrism, conservation is not understood Concrete operational 6-12 years: Can perform basic mental operations Formal Operations 12+: Can think abstractly Know characteristics and developmental milestones of each. Social Development: Attachment – **Bowlby -Indiscriminate  Attach with anyone -Discriminate Attach with certain people -Specific  Familiar vs, Unfamiliar **Answorth -SecureAttachment  Positive w/strangers, sad when mother leaves, happen when she returns -Anxious-ResistantAttachment  Fearful when mother present, demand attention, distressed when mother leaves, not happy when she returns -Anxious-AvoidantAttachment  Few signs of attachment (Doesn’t care) **Bartholomew + Horowitz -Secure  Comfortable w/intimacy + autonomy -Preoccupied  High emotional reactivity, preoccupied w/relationships -Dismissing  Dismissive of attachment -Fearful Afraid of intimacy, high emotional reactivity Erikson – Social Development 8 stages – know each one and be able to recognize an example of each. -Trust/Mistust  Safety Net -Autonomy/Doubt  Independence -Initiative/Guilt  Curiosity -Industry/Inferiority  Self-Esteem -Identity/Role Confusion  Personality -Intimacy/Isolation  Relationships -Generativity/Stagnation Adaptivity -Integrity/Despair  Reflection ImaginaryAudience  Believe everyone can see your flaws Personal Fable  Nobody can understand where you’re coming from Adulthood 2 main issues; Intimacy v. isolation and Generativity v. sta
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