Exam 3 notes
Motivation and Emotion
Motivation – Process that influences the direction, persistence and strength of a goal
Where do motivations come from?
Drive Reduction Theory – physiological need creates a state of internal tension or arousal
(drive) that motivates an organism to behave in such a way to reduce this tension.
We are “pushed” by physiological need to reduce drives.
We are “pulled” by incentives to reduce drives.
Incentives: Extrinsic or Intrinsic
Extrinsic For an external reward
Intrinsic For own internal benefit
Abraham Maslow also took into account striving for personal growth
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Deficiency needs, growth needs.
Physiological motivations: Glucose level changes, hormones e.g. Leptin
Psychological motivations: Conditioning, memory
Cultural motivations: can influence tastes
Body Image – Eating Disorders
Anorexia: description? symptoms? causes/ common traits? Perfectionism, Disapproving
parents, need for control
Bulimia: description? symptoms? causes/ common traits? Loss of self control, anxiety,
depression, lack of stable personality
Physiologically based motive but strongly influenced by learning and values.
Physiological motivations: Sex hormones (estrogen, testosterone)
Psychological motivations: Psychological stimulation – desire, fantasies
Cultural motivations: social norms on acceptable/unacceptable behaviors
Gender based differences on casual sex
How does pornography influence sexual behavior?
Social Learning Theory – If watched, can learn
Catharsis Principle – If watched, prevents outburst of desires in real life Sexual orientation – 3 dimensions
Determinants of sexual orientation - Environmental factors? Biological factors?
Desire toAffiliate: Maslow
4 basic psychological reasons: SSAC – Stimulation, Support,Attention, Comparison
to obtain positive stimulation
to receive emotional support
to gain attention
to permit social comparison
Seeking a Mate:
Sexual Strategies Theory- Choosing mate based on inherent tendencies (shaped to adapt
Social Structure Theory- Society gives roles to men and women, forced to choose mate
Need for achievement
Development across the Lifespan
4 major issues in Devp. Psych.:
1. Nature v. Nurture
2. Critical v. Sensitive periods
3. Stages and continuity of development
4. Stability v. change in characteristics over lifespan
Schemas – Groupings of things we percieve
Assimilation – Puts new experience into existing schemas
Accomodation – Puts into and changes existing schemas
Piaget’s 4 stages:
Sensorimotor 0 – 2 years: Object permanence, stranger anxiety, sensory experience
Preoperational 2-6 years: Think in words, pretend play, Egocentrism, conservation is not
Concrete operational 6-12 years: Can perform basic mental operations
Formal Operations 12+: Can think abstractly
Know characteristics and developmental milestones of each.
Attachment – **Bowlby
-Indiscriminate Attach with anyone
-Discriminate Attach with certain people
-Specific Familiar vs, Unfamiliar
-SecureAttachment Positive w/strangers, sad when mother leaves, happen when she
-Anxious-ResistantAttachment Fearful when mother present, demand attention,
distressed when mother leaves, not happy when she returns
-Anxious-AvoidantAttachment Few signs of attachment (Doesn’t care)
**Bartholomew + Horowitz
-Secure Comfortable w/intimacy + autonomy
-Preoccupied High emotional reactivity, preoccupied w/relationships
-Dismissing Dismissive of attachment
-Fearful Afraid of intimacy, high emotional reactivity
Erikson – Social Development
8 stages – know each one and be able to recognize an example of each.
-Trust/Mistust Safety Net
-Identity/Role Confusion Personality
ImaginaryAudience Believe everyone can see your flaws
Personal Fable Nobody can understand where you’re coming from
2 main issues;
Intimacy v. isolation and Generativity v. sta