Psychology 101, Exam 3 Study Guide with partial fill-in.doc

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Tracy Dunne

Development across the Lifespan4 major issues in Devp Psych1 Nature v NurtureTo what extent is our development the product of heredity and the product of the environment2 Critical v Sensitive periodssensitive period an optimal age range for certain experiences but if those experiences happen at another time normal development is still possiblecritical period an age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally3 Stages and continuity of developmentIf development is continuous and gradual or if it is discontinuous progressing through qualitatively different stages4 Stability v change in characteristics over lifespanIf our characteristics remain consistant as we ageCognitive DevelopmentPiagetProposed that childrens thinking changes qualitatively with age and that it differs from the way adults think cognitive development results from an interaction of the brains biological maturation and personal experiencesSchemasorganized patterns of thought and action framework that guides our interaction with the worldAssimilationnew experiences are incorporated into existing schemas Accomodationnew experiences cause existing schemas to changePiagets 4 stagesSensorimotor 02 years Infants understand their world primarily through sensory experiences and physical motor interactions with objects develop object permanence in this stage around 8 monthsPreoperational 26 yearsChildren represent the world symbolically through words and mental images but do not yet understand basic mental operations or rules display irreversibility difficulty to reverse an action mentally display centration focusing on only one
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