ATOC 1050 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Outgoing Longwave Radiation, Polar Stratospheric Cloud, Radiative Cooling

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ATOC 1050
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1 Lecture Notes - Jan. 17th 2017
The Atmosphere
Meteorology sietifi study of atosphere ad atospheri pheoea + atosphere’s
iteratio ith earth’s surfae ad oeas
Weather state of atmosphere at given time and place
Climate average weather sum of all statistical weather info that helps describe place/region
What is the atmosphere?
A thin layer of air that surrounds earth
- Approx. 75 miles deep
Essential for life on earth
- Without it nights are too cold and days are too hot
Where weather occurs
- Incoming solar radiation with atmosphere drives everyday patterns of wind and
weather
Atmospheric Layers
Troposphere temperature usually decreases when height increases
Stratosphere temperature is closely constant for approx. first 20 km after this, temp.
increases with height due to absorption of solar radiation by ozone
Mesosphere temp decreases with height coolest temps in the atmosphere are at the top of
mesosphere
Thermosphere temp increases with height contains very small fraction of overall mass of
atmosphere
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Exosphere upper limit of atmosphere where atoms and molecules go into space
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
Air Pressure and air density
Density number of molecules in a given space
Pressure amount of force exerted over an area of surface and the weight of the air above a
given point
Atmosphere pressure decreases exponentially w/ increasing height
Standard sea level pressure = 1013.25 mbar = 1013.25 hPa = 29.92 inches Hg
How are these measured?
Radiosondes
- Small lightweight box equipped w/ weather instruments connected to a balloon
- As balloon rises, radiosonde measures air temp, humidity, air pressure and GPS location
(gives wind info)
Copositio of Earth’s Atosphere
- Permanent Gases
o Nitrogen 78%
o Oxygen 21%
- Variable Gases
o Water vapor up to 4%
o Carbon dioxide 0.04%
o Ozone, aerosols and pollutants
What is ozone?
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