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AMH 2020
Tarah Luke

AMH 2020 Complete Notes U.S. prior to reconstruction  British take control and Americans are unsettled  Boycott  tea party  revolution  U.S. has independent states then come together o Problems just as not uniformed currency; problem with economy o Problems with lack of government o Slaves  1616 first slaves came to the US. They worked for several years than became free. Not racial at first  Slavery became racial  North becomes industrialized  Election of Abraham Lincoln 1860  Lincoln believed as long as slavery did not spread, it would disappear.  South Carolina was the first state to succeed  Lincoln wanted a unified America  Lincoln only brought up the slavery issue in the war when the North needed more motive to win over the south  Emancipation proclamation freed the slaves living in the United States  Industrialization kicks in and the North wins the civil war  Tension after the civil war  Lincoln was the best hope for reconstruction of the North and the South  Lincoln shot and died at play  Andrew Johnson becomes president (1865 – 1869) Democrat and Southerner didn’t learn to read until early 20’s  Andrews’s main goal was to bring the North whites and south whites to come together. Did not care about the blacks  Lincolns plan for reconstruction o Lincoln wanted 10% southerners to sign loyalty oath o Each state would promise to abolish slavery o Each former confederate state would agree to provide education to free them and educate the slaves o Lincoln was worried without education slaves would live the same life before freedom o Lincoln never mention black civil rights or voting rights o Congress is worried Lincolns plan is to light on the south o 1/4 of Mississippi’s money to brought to buying o 1879 cotton goes back to normal  Johnsons plan for reconstruction o No loyalty oaths for south o If you have over 20,000 you must go to the white house o Insists every state in south ratify 13 amendment (abolish slavery) o No concern for African American rights  Radical republicans were lead by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner o Wanted to help blacks and go against the south o Leaders in the confederacy was taking seats in congress and that pissed the radical republicans off o Very vengeful o Institution of black codes did not agree with; black codes gave African Americans rules such as who they would marry; how far they could travel, etc. (replaced slave rules) o Decided they didn’t want Johnson in office as president  1865 Freedman’s Bureau was initially proposed under Lincoln o The Freedman’s Bureau would provide education for the freedman’s (schools were built) o Johnson veto’s this bill o Radical republicans didn’t not agree with the veto and pass the civil right act of 1866  Civil rights act of 1866 o Johnson did not agree, got drunk, gave a speech to bash the radical republicans o Act of 1866 still passes o Then Johnson decides to pass the freedman Bureau  The radical republicans passed the 14 amendment in 1868 which defined citizenship  Native Americans are still not considered American Citizens for about another 30 years  Congressional or radical reconstruction acts (1867) o Reconstruction acts divides into 5 districts  Southerners cant be in charge of military districts o Radical republicans enforce the blacks must have the right to vote  Southerners did not agree  Causes conflict with the south  Impeachment of Andrew Johnson o Johnson tries to get the people to vote for the radical republicans o The radical republicans brings up 11 accusations to get him impeached  10 year office act says a president can not remove cabinet members that have been approved by senate without approval from them  Johnson removed Edwin Stanton who was a radical republican without permission from the senate  Congress voted to impeach Johnson  Edmund ross of senate was the one to vote and voted to keep Johnson (35-19); he was bribed by Johnson  Johnson was impeached but stayed in office  After office went to be on senate  Election of 1868 o US grant running for presidency as a republican; slogan “let us have peace” with reconstruction o Grant won against Horatio Seymour o Grant passes 15 amendment (1870) th o The 15 amendments give all blacks the right to vote o Grant won election by blacks o Grant elected again in 1872  Radical Reconstruction in the South o A lot of southerners immigrate to Europe or Brazil (still have slaves) o “Carpetbaggers” = white northerners; came into the south to exploit the south  Called the “carpetbaggers” because when they went to the south they packed up all their belongings in carpet and rolled the carpet. o Most hated group were the “scalawags”; the “scalawags” supported the republicans o Republicans were seen as being liberal o “Scalawags” were traitors o African Americans had freedom and some became successful and elected into office (state senators, state treasurers)  Blacks still didn’t have skills to be strong. Still dealt with racism  Black began to raise taxes (no one liked; cause criticism)  Whites wanted blacks out of office)  Radical Republicans achieve o System of public schools across the south o Welfare programs for people that were disabled (blind/deaf) o Lead south to become more industrialized with railroads be able to trade  Sharecropping = large plantations are broken up into parcels o African Americans would work on these parcels o Freedman got 50% of crops, owner of the land got 50%  Tenant farming = better of than sharecropping; they got more to take home  Cop – lien system = owner of land would give freedman money to buy supplies and when crops are grown they pay the owners back; this system keep blacks constantly in poverty. Can’t travel wherever you want because you own the white men money.  Ku Klux Klan first starts in 1866 in Tennessee  KKK hates the fact that republicans are seen as the enemy  KKK wanted to use intimidation to make blacks, carpetbaggers, scalawags to NOT vote for the republicans  KKK very successful. Used voter Fraud  KKK wanted to force blacks to vote democratic  KKK created redeemer governments across the south. Redeemers were white southerners conservative, democratic  Reconstruction in the south was relatively helpful for the African Americans  Whites created the KK and other groups  Birth of the Nations (movie) o Very racist o Not filmed until 50 years after the civil war, demonstrated the stereotypes that were prevalent through out the south in the post- war years of African Americans o Blacks are portrayed as the villains o Blacks were loyal to the whites or fighting for their own rights o Blacks were soldiers o This movie makes fun of radical reconstruction o The clan is considered/viewed as loyal o KKK always depicted in red  Election of 1876 o Grant runs again o Grant accomplished the 15 amendment and the republicans did not want him running again o Rutherford B Hayes vs. Samuel Tilden  Joint electoral commission created o 15 members of House, supreme court, and senate o FL, LA, SC were the 3 left over states go to Hayes o Hayes get 185 electoral votes o Tilden got 184 electoral votes.  Compromise of 1877 o Republican becomes president (Hayes) o Hayes must end military Rule in the south o Promise to build railroads through south but didn’t happen o Democrats wanted to end reconstruction o Civil rights for blacks in the south crumbled (black rights take such as no right to vote anymore)  The New south o Henry Grady developed this idea o Grady is the editor of the constitution o Needs to be an end to sharecropping o Grady believes south need to be more industrialized o 1920’s the southern economy remained agricultural  Disfranchisement o The whites wanted to disfranchise anyone who is a democrat.  Poll tax was due when people had no spare cash (disfranchise blacks)  Literacy test  Grandfather clause o If you’re grandfather did vote then you my not vote  Residency requirement o Had to be a citizen for a certain number of years or had to live in same places for a certain number of years  “White primary” o Only whites could vote  Jim Crow Laws o Regulated all aspects of Black lives  Plessey vs. Ferguson (1896) o 8-1 decisions against Plessey separate are equal. Lynchings  Every 2 days a black man was lynched  The last mass of multiple people in the united states that were lynched happened in the 1940’s and took place in Georgia.  Lynchings gave the victims no trial or defense before they were lynched.  Most the time lynching is a hanging but doesn’t have to be Booker T. Washington  Born to a slave mother and never really sure who his father was.  Interesting philosophy that African Americans in order to be seen as equals to whites then they have to prove they are equal by getting jobs. Very controversial  Problem is that whites didn’t want to hire blacks and most blacks didn’t have the education that was needed.  Tuskegee Institute was where African Americans get educated to have good skills for blue-collar work. o Washington is criticized  Whites loved Booker T. Washington and donated money to Tuskegee Institution  Uses his money from his white donators and donates it to the NAACP. W.E.B Du Bois  Born in Massachusetts and was mixed race  Earned his undergraduate degree and was the first black to get his ph. from Harvard.  Does not believe that every African American needs to be educated through this institution  Talented 10 – was the top ten most educated African Americans to go on and receive a liberal arts education and build the race o Criticism is its lewdest, how do you determine the top 10 percent, why only the top 10 percent?  Most known for working for the NAACP (was mostly white organization) and was the editor for the newsletter “the crisis” The west  Native Americans thought that the West was a place to move and start over with freedom after the Civil War  Conflict between the settlers moving west and the native African Americans out west  200,00 Exoduses (native Americans that move west)  Mining o A career path that native Americans thought they could make money fast o 1856 Comstock Load – settlers in Nevada found over 3 million dollars worth of cold o Pike’s Peak Boom (1858)  Cattle o 40,000 cowboys after the civil war working the Great Plains. o 30 percent of cowboys are either Indian, black, or Mexican o Average age of cowboy during this period is 24 years old o Era of cowboys between 1866-1868 o Dries up as a career path because of numerous drought and the invention of barbwire o Fence Cutter’s War  Takes place for about a year in Texas  Cowboys are cutting fences to get to peoples lands and the cowboys get shot  Farming o Farming is very profitable and the government is encouraging the number amount of people to go west and farm o 1970-1990 the farm that is available for farming expands. Governments were basically giving away free land or selling it for very cheap o Homestead Act  Occurs when the civil war starts and continues through another decade  If you move out west the government with give you 160 acres of land and if you make improvements on that land then you get it for free o Timber Act  Promises people they can get 160 acres for free as long as you plant trees on 40 acres. o Desert Land Act  640 acres of land for free if you irrigate the land  Indian Wars o Sand Creek Massacre  This shows how brutal the white Americans could be towards the native Americans  John chibington has a massacre of the people living in the camp which was all women, children, and the elderly o 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn  also known as custers last stand  lasted for about 15 months  Custer and 210 of his men decide to surround an Indian camp. 2500 native Americans come and kill all of custers 210 men o Nez Perce War  Chief Joseph  Tired of fighting  Travels his troups 1500 miles towards Canada and then after 30 miles outside of Canada the government catches them o Battle of Wounded Knee (December 29, 1890)  Last big battle of Indian Wars  200-300 sue are killed  people are returning their weapons o Dawes Act  Passed in 1887  Goal was to get native Americans to assimulate and become more American (become White)  Government says we will enter into an agreement with the native Americans to give up their way of life and use white methods of farming to make a living and convert to Christianity then the government will give the native Americans citizenship. The government will also give them land.  40 acres for general living methods  if they raise cattle with the white method then they get 80 acres  if they work as farmers with white methods then they would get 160 acres of land.  The government was giving the native Americans bad land  The native Americans wanted to receive the land and then sell it to move somewhere else but the Dawes act made it mandatory for the Native Americans to keep the land for 25 years  1924 all native Americans were granted citizenship  Railroads o Transcontinental – 1869 o Due to the pacific Railroad act (1862) – union pacific – central pacific o Met at promontores point (may 10, 1869)  Land grants given to the Atlantic and Pacific Radical Republicans in Arizona = 100 square miles of land for every mile of track built. Plus 200 acres for rough terrain (costed US government over $100 million)  Credit Mobilier Scandal o False Lassie Faire government - hand off government; the government is going to let you do what you want to do and not watch every move  Andrew Graham Bell developed the telephone (1876). o Bell originally wanted to create something to help the deaf people hear but actually created the telephone  Theodore Vail o Worked off of Bell’s invention o Created AT&T – American telephone and telegraph company o AT&T - is the largest monopoly during that time. o This gave woman a chance to work o Thousands of women were being hired for teleoperator o Starts the beginning of a slow revolution  George Westinghouse o Created air breaks for railroads. o The air breaks allows the train to stop at a faster rate and get going faster would allow companies to add more trains on the railroads o Before air breaks there was break men and because of this invention all the men lost their jobs  Elisha Otis o invented the elevator o important in the cities because taller buildings were able to be built  Gustavus Swift and Philip Armour o Developed canned meat; meat packing o Invention becomes really important when the United states go to war because it was a lot easier to transport meat  Christopher Schole o Develops the typewriter which gives women more jobs as secretaries.  Thomas A. Edison o The greatest inventor during this time period o Developed the light bulb and the photograph and many others  Andrew Carnegie o An organizer o Carnegie entered the business at the right time and makes large amounts of money with steel. o Creates a huge factory in Homestead, PA o He always seems to know how much his workers could handle o He wanted to make steel even cheaper and would have to cut the wages of the workers. o He replaces a lot of stuff in the factory with new technologies in order to make the cut in pay for employees not as bad. o Vertical integration  He would buy materials and companies to make more profit  He controls transportation, the processing , the sale to consumer.  He creates a monopoly and makes more money o “the Gospel of Wealth”  Carnegie believes in giving away a lot of his wealth to help others.  JP Morgan o 1890s controls 1/6 of the nations railroads o purchases US steel from Carnegie. o Offers Carnegie 500 million to sell steel to him. o JP morgan takes over steel o First billion dollar company  John D. Rockefeller o Creates the standard oil company o Wanted to control the refining of oil o All oil of the united states goes through Rockefeller o Rockefeller enters a serious of price wars with many smaller businesses which leads to other people going out of business and Rockefeller then buys the companies o Horizontal Integration  Standard oil trusts controls 80-90%  Largest company o Rockefeller is the first billionaire in the US o Rockefeller donated about 500 million dollars throughout his lifetime  Social Darwinism o Survival of the fittedes  The Grange o Formed in 1867 by Oliver Kelly o Created the Grange because he wanted to create an organization of farmers to better the united states after the post war o Become political very quickly  Help out the farmers o Try to pass Granger laws o Railroads are in their way and the railroads try to take advantage of framers  Munn v Illinois (1877) o This is a important court case o The case says :The united states government has the power to regulate private industries. o This case comes about because the legislator of Illinois felt pressured from the Granger o The grange somewhat disappears  Farmers alliance = Populists o their primary goal is to help farmers  Ocala demands  Demanded a new banking system  They want the direct election of senators  Watch regulation of railroads  Income tax on the rich  Mary Elizabeth Lease o Unique to the populist party o Shes telling farmers to stand up for their rights  “Sockless” jerry Simpson o son got cut in half while worker o he becomes a crusader o works towards conditions in work places o didn’t wear shoes to show that he was poor o a reform candidate  James B. Weaver o the populist candidate for president in 1892 o wants universal suffrage o only people voting at this time was white men over 21 o first time the populist party runs o weaver gets 22 electoral votes (as 1 million popular votes) o wants to regulate labor, regulate the telephone.  Wabash Case (1886) o Severly limits the rights of states to control interstate commerce o The court had to decide whether the states had the power to regulate railroad prices for inner states  Interstate Commerce Act (1887) o Direct reaction to the Wabash case o Government is trying to regulate business for the first time. o The government has really good intentions but never enough power to control big businesses.  Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) o Outlaws all trust and monopolies o Doesn’t have any real power to break up companies  U.S. v E.C. Knight Company  First time that the supreme court interprets the Sherman Antitrust Act.  The supreme court said that controlling 98% sugar industry in the united states does not control the united states  Proves that the Sherman antitrust act is powerless.  Labor o Conditions  Under the age of 14 about 1.7 million kids working  About 5 people were kill in industrial accidents every day  Very bad conditions in labor  Families get nothing if their husband or children get injured.  Great Railroad Strike of 1877 o Significant because it is the first major interstate strike in US history o The eastern railroad line was going to cut the workers wages and the workers in West Virginia was going to walk out and then every railroad worker across the US walked out  Terence V. Powderly o Knights of labor accepted anyone  Skilled, non-skilled, African Americans, women, any religion  This is a problem because people they accepted didn’t necessarily get along and there is too many different interests  A lot of fighting within the group  Main goal is they want an 8 hour work day  This is seen as a very radical idea  Did not believe in strikes  By 1880 the knights of Labor had about 1 million members and by 1884 they disappeared because of the Haymarket square riot.  American Federation Labor o Led by Samuel Gompers o They only want skilled workers o They want a shorter workday; advocate for 10 hours a day o They want higher wages; better working conditions o They are willing to use strikes to achieve their goals  Homestead Strike (1892) o The workers are the “Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel workers  The workers decided to go on strike  H.C. Frick is incharge of the workers  Frick builds a 12 foot fence around the factory and hires 300 Pinkerton guards that are armed with military mentality. Turns into fort Frick  In July 0f 1892 a shoot out begins which is known as the Battle of Homestead which is between the workers and the Pinkerton guards.  Leads in 9 deaths  3 Pinkerton guars  6 workers  newspapers are on the side of the workers  Strike continues on until November and ends when 8,000 members of the state militia got involved and strike collapses and workers get nothing.  Pullman, Illinois (1894) o Named after George Pullman who built this city and owned everything in the city o Pullman decided to cut workers wages between 30 and 70 percent. o Instead of lowering prices he keeps the prices the same but still cuts the wages with negative Pullman cash o Workers go under strike under American Railway Union lead by Eugene V. Debs o The government decides to charge the American railway Union with violated the Sherman antitrust act o In re Debs (1895) supports the US government  The American railway union was a monopoly  Coal strike of 1902 o Huge election o The mine workers get 10 percent pay increase o Want recognition of the unions; 9 hour workday; 20 percent pay increase the miners present this to the mine workers o The United mine workers go on strike o Teddy Roosevelt got a lot of the blame for the strike o The Union gets recognition (very important!!) of the union. First time the union has won. Also get a 10 percent raise o Mother Jones  In 1867 her husband and 4 children all die and she decides to move to Chicago and gets there and the Chicago fire burned everything she owned. She has nothing and she decides to work with the labor unions and advocates to end child labor and a shorter work day and more money.  Shes with the Knights of Labor  At 83 she is arrested for conspiracy of murder  Election of 1876 o James Garfield(republican) is running against Windfield Scott Hancock (democrats) o Garfield gets elected into office o Charles Gateau killed Garfield o Chester A. Arthur becomes president o Arthur passes the 1883 Pendleton civil service act  Carries out Garfield’s vision  Arthur is known of the father of civil service  Election of 1884 o first nasty battle for presidency o James G. Blaine a republican is going up against Grover Cleveland a Democrat o Blaine was in charge of railroads o Cleveland was the Governor of New York and seen as a politician. o Cleveland wins the election  Election of 1888 and 1892 have the same runners for election o Benjamin Harrison the republican going against Grover Cleveland the Democrat o Corrupt election o Between 1888 and 1892 Harrison had really no power during presidency except for when he puts Teddy Roosevelt and put him in the civil service commission. o 6 new states are admitted to the U.S. o In the 1892 election Cleveland wins instead of Harrison o In 1892 the populist, Weaver, gets 1 million populist votes  Election of 1896 o William McKinley was going up against William Jennings Bryan. o During this election the questioning of coining silver was being debated o The republicans supporting the gold o Bryan supported bimetallism o 16 ounces of silver to 1 gold o McKinley held a front porch campaign so anyone who came to his porch he would be there to answer his or her questions. o Jennings goes on a train wide campaign across the United States. o McKinley ushers in the progressive era. o Business is till the stop priority going into this era.  Progressive Era (1896-1919) o A reaction to immigration, to labor disputes, to urbanization, new south, business o Series of ideas o First thing they strive for is anti monopoly o Second thing is all progressives want some form of urban reform o They want to stop government ineffective. o Driven by the white middle class o One of the first group to push for reform is the Muckrakers  Muckrakers are journalists that expose different issues that our society is having such as child labor,  Lincoln Steffans  Writes the book, The Shame of the Cities,  In this book Steffans tries to show corruption in city government throughout America. The most corrupt city to Steffans is Minneapolis.  Ida Tarbell  Wrote, History of Standard Oil  She writes negative things about the business practices for standard oil  It contributes to the government’s anti-trust to standard oil.  Most famous muckraker is Upton Sinclair  Wrote the book, The Jungle  The jungle talked about unsanitary in meatpacking.  Meat Inspection Act of 1906  Inspection of meat in the factories to make sure the workers are safe and the meat is sanitized  Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906  Creates the food and drug administration  Ideas of Progressives o (1) Drive for more democracy for the middle class  Initiative - ways in order to get the government more in touch with the people. Allowed regular people to get signature and right bills to be passed into law  Referendum – same as initiative  Recall – a certain number of people don’t like the way the politicians are doing things so the people can try to replace them  17 amendment – in 1913 – allows for the direct election of us senators. The populist proposed.  19 amendment – gave women the right to vote. The populist proposed  Direct primary – vote directly within you party for the person that you think is going to be best for the presidency o (2) Active Government  The government needs to protect everyone. Even the less fortunate  “Welfare State”  Government begins to assume responsibility over the people. o (3) Efficiency  Frederick Taylor creates experiments to try to determine the most efficient way to improve industrial efficiency.  Progressives try to create commissions.  The city manager  An unelected position that manages the city. o (4) Regulation  “Trust-busting”  Progressives think that all companies need to be regulated.  “Watchdog agencies” watch the businesses to make sure they are playing fair and not doing anything illegal o (5) Social justice  Most appealing.  Saw it as a direct challenge to social dwarfism. (Only the strong survive)  Want an 8 hour workday but do not get it  End child labor but does not come about until the 1930  Triangle Shirtwaist Fire was a huge fire that happened in New York o Prohibition – taxes liquor and stops allowing people to drink. o Women’s Suffrage o Conservation movement  Teddy Roosevelt supports  The set up of the national parks Philippine Insurrection (1901)  Direct result of the united states gaining control Presidency of Teddy Roosevelt (1901-1901)  “Mr. Imperialism”  He wants the United States to be seen as the number one in the world.  Boxes, hunts, hikes, very active  1884 his wife and mother die the exact same day. Wife while giving birth to their child  Totally removes himself from politics  Returns to the east coast in 1887 and is appointed secretary  People aren’t very excited about his presidency.  Focuses on Latin American o Big issue in Latin America wants to build the Panama Canal.  Philip Bunau-Varilla  Wants to start a revolution with Roosevelt which leads to the Panama Revolution  Hay/Herron Treaty  Columbia  Panamanians didn’t sign the treaty from the Panama Revolution.  Panama canal is really important to the United States during the WWI. It took a lot of manpower to build the canal. Woodrow Wilson  Elected in 1912 as progressive democrat o Former history professor, president of New Jersey, and Governor of New Jersey o First southern President since the Civil War  Wants so apply ideas to domestic problems o European conflict gets in the way o Wanted to serve humankind/spread democracy  Reelect in 1916 with the slogan “he kept us our of war”  Wilson brings progressive idea to mankind/spread democracy Missionary Diplomacy  Woodrow Wilsons idea  US must help save the world o Spread “Gospel of Democracy” World War One Facts  US don’t not enter until 1917  10 – 15 million casualties  Began with the assassination of Franz Ferdinand (Austrian) by Serbian nationalists, though this is not the only factor that caused the war o Wanted Serbian independence o War does not begin immediately o A-H sends an ultimatum to Serbia o Serbs ally with Russia o AH allies with Germany o Germany and Russia declare war o France, then Britain, join with Russia o Turkey joins with Germany *War – but this is still largely a European conflict not a world war Causes of the War  Rise of Germany o Upsets the balance of power in Europe  Growth of Nationalism o European nations want to expand  Arms Race/ Creation of new weapons o Machine guns, tanks, gas, u-boats World War One Powers  Central Powers o Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (turkey)  Allied Powers o Britain, france, Russia o Italy joins in 1915  US stays out of the war originally (doesn’t enter until 1917) o Trades with both powers  But heavily in favor of Britain and allies o Largest neutral country and US has an isolationist mentality o Wilson wants Americans to even be “neutral in thought” German U-Boats  Submarines change naval warfare  Germany declares waters around Britain and France to be a war zone o Will attack anyone in that area Sinking of the Luisitania  Sunk in 1915  Germans warned US passengers that they were entering a war zone (so they got on at their own risk)  129 Americans Killed  1200 deaths total Sinking of the Sussex  March 24, 1916  2 Americans are injured  US is very angry about this  The Sussex pledge was derived from this sinking Sussex Pledge ** Germany issues pledge to keep US out of the war. A) Decide to surface, and give warning before firing on ships. They end unrestricted submarine warfare. They give time for passengers to leave ships before blowing them up. (Basically makes the subs defenseless) B) Subs are vulnerable and the Germans are losing too many U-boats. Decide that they should try to win Europe before the US comes over. Even with the Sussex pledge, American troops are mobilizing for war **end in January 1917 A) Germany renews unrestricted u-boat warfare B) Hope to win war before American troops arrive Zimmerman telegraph  Germans would give Mexicans their land back if they fought the US  GB intercepts this  US declares war April 2, 1917 o Had been mobilizing for war even with the Sussex pledge o Stated reason: unrestricted submarine warfare o Real reason: wanted democracy US in World War One  US heavily unprepared th  Only 17 largest army  There are not enough weapons  Begins conscription/draft ** The first troops arrive in Europe in January 1918 Mobilization  War Industry board ** help transition the US from peacetime to wartime economy **Led by Bernard Beruch  Mobilize US for war materials A) set prices B) set standard production C) establish wages  **basically achieve the dream of Progressives o ultimate government regulation  rise of military/industry Complex  **private business and military partnership Food Administration for Mobilization  Led by Herbert Hoover o Increase farm production o Raise farm prices  Golden age of farmers  Institute voluntary days to conserve food o “wheatless Wednesday”, “meatless Mondays”  Liberty Gardens spring up o “grow your own”  1919-Hovover is announced to be the most beloved American Great Migration  blacks move to North o around 1.5 million  leave South to find jobs and new life in North o never find what they want o still find discrimination and racism WWI and Civil Liberties  Led by George Creel o Goal is to sell war to people  Sedition Laws o Cannot criticize war effort  $10,000 fine/20 years in prison o Schneck v. US (1919)  Challenges the sedition act. Says US can suppress freedom of speech  1,000 convictions during the war  discrimination—many were socialists and radicals  Eugene Debs arrested  Gets 1 million votes from jail US Army  US does not win war o Helps allies and boosts morale  Germans basically starving to death  Germany signs Armistice, November 11, 1918 (eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh century) Versailles Treaty  Germnay agrees to Armistice based on 14 points. Only reason they sign  Germany is not represented. They are forced to sign. They are not invited to the conference o US/GB/FR/Italy  Wilson’s 14 points o 1-5  end causes of war o 6-13  readjust/remap Europe o 14  league of nations **The goal of Wilson is to end all future wars (this is not possible) Wilson leaves US for months & first president to do so. Europe Punishes Europe  League of Nations  Germany loses territory  Create Poland fro
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