APK 3110C Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Fruit Preserves, Myocyte, Lactic Acid

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APK 3110C
Test 3 Study Guide
The Overload Principle
o a muscle acting against a resistance normally not encountered- unaccustomed stress
Specificity principle of VO2max
o Aerobic training is needed to improve VO2max specifically
Changed induced by anaerobic training (energy availability)
Anaerobic power training adaptations
Increased anaerobic substrate levels
o ATP, PCr, Free creatine and glycogen
Increased capacity to generate and tolerate high levels of blood lactate during all-out
effort
o Increased levels of glycogen and glycolytic enzymes
o Improved pain tolerance and motivation
o No evidence of an increase in buffering capacity
Physiological changes in metabolism, cardiovascular and pulmonary systems after aerobic
training- at rest, submaximal intensity and maximal intensity exercise:
Physiological changes in Metabolism after Aerobic Training
Larger and more mitochondria
o Increases capacity to generate ATP aerobically
o Increased enzyme activity
At rest
o Fat Metabolism
Increased FA oxidation
Conserves glycogen which enhances endurance capacity
Submaximal Intensity
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o Fat Metabolism
Increased FA oxidation
Conserves glycogen which enhances endurance capacity
o Carbohydrate Metabolism
Decreased CHO used as fuel
Decreases glucose production and use
o Training enhances hepatic gluconeogenic capacity which
increases your resistance to hypoglycemia during
endurance exercise
Maximal intensity
o Carbohydrate Metabolism
Improved CHO oxidation
Physiological Changes in Cardiovascular System after Aerobic Training
At rest
o Greater left ventricular end diastolic volumes
o Plasma volume increased
o Bradycardia
o Stroke volume is increased
Submaximal Intensity
o Greater left ventricular end diastolic volumes
o Bradycardia
12-15 bpm lower during submaximal exercise
o stroke volume is increased
o Cardiac output is decreased after training
Oxygen needs are met by increasing oxygen extraction at muscle
Maximal intensity
o Greater left ventricular end diastolic volumes
o Stroke volume is increased
o Cardiac output is increased
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Physiological changes in Pulmonary System after Aerobic Training
At rest
Submaximal Intensity
o Increased tidal volume and decreased breathing frequency
o Reduced energy cost of breathing
This is because oxygen consumption by ventilatory muscles is decreased
Maximal intensity
o Increased tidal volume and breathing rate
This means your ventilation as maximum oxygen consumption increased
because you need to eliminate extra carbon dioxide
Substrate utilization, blood flow, stroke volume, cardiac output, blood pressure, heart rate,
plasma volume (and what this change causes), a-vO2 difference
Substrate Utilization
After aerobic training, you use less energy from carbohydrates and more energy from fat
Blood Flow
Submaximal Exercise
o Reduced muscle blood flow
o Less blood flow is needed to meet tissues oxygen needs
Maximal exercise
o Increased total skeletal muscle blood flow
o Increased cardiac output
o Redistribution of blood to active muscles
Stroke Volume
Increased during rest and exercise by endurance training
And increase in plasma volume and LV causes and increase in Stroke volume
Greatest increase is the transition from at rest to moderate exercise
An untrained person has a smaller increase in stroke volume so their increase in heart rate
is what drives their increase in cardiac output
A trained persons heart rate and stroke volume both increase during exercise which
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