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Social Psychology COMPLETE NOTES [Part 18] -- got 92% in the course

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SOP 3004

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Morality  What is morality? • A psychological state that deems acts as immoral and wrong → Rather than disagreeable, unfashionable, or imprudent – we tend to think that our morals should be universal • Also motivates punishment toward the immoral individual → Not only is it okay to harm them, but it is actually wrong to let them “get away with it” • Morality can be turned on and off • Morality comes with a feeling of righteousness  drive to recruit others to their moral cause → Health vegetarians (less likely to push values on you) vs. moral vegetarians (see meat eating as murder, more pushy) • Morality is often aligned with one’s lifestyle  Selfish impulse vs. social conscience • Many moral laws are universal  all cultures have systems of morality • Evolution favors selfishness  the purpose of evolution is for you to go on and pass along your genes • Morality requires the individual to put the group over oneself → We get much better outcomes when we cooperate rather than working on our own  Moral instinct • Programmed for morality → Not necessarily born good or bad; just born understanding that there is good and bad • Other species too? → We actually have parts of our brain that activate in regards to morality  Elephant and the Rider – Haidt • Argument – people don’t use moral reasoning, but moral rationalization → They start with the answer that comes from the unconscious, and then work backwards to come up with a plausible justification → Rider: the conscious, verbal, thinking brain → Elephant: the automatic, emotional, visceral brain ⇒ Emotions are stronger than and can override our thought processes  Disgust • Immorality leaves a bad taste in one’s mouth → nasty taste → pictures of gross stuff → unfair treatment → the disgust face keeps you away from gross thing  Washing away immorality • People who think about, write about, immoral actions → Prefer hand sanitizer, rate cleaning products as more valuable, and prefer mouthwash  Guilt • Definition - unpleasant moral emotion associated with a specific instance in which one has acted badly or wrongly → Motivates people to make it up • Guilty participant study → 1/2 of participants have confederate tell them about the study and all the answers before → When asked by experimenter, all say they know nothing → "A few minutes extra, would you want to help me out with something?" → People who lied stayed over an hour, those who didn't stayed maybe 5 minutes.  Other moral emotions • Sympathy prompts people to offer the first favor, with the expectation of reciprocation. • Anger protects people from cheaters, motivating people to punish them or sever the relationship (protection mechanism) • Gratitude motivates one to reward those that helped them in the past (borrow notes, buy them a cuppa joe  Moral licensing
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