Psychology 101 Exam 1 Notes

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
PSY-P 101
Jim Cuellar

Psychology 101 82713 100PMWhat is PsychologyPsychology the scientific study of behavior and mental processesScientific side answering questions objectively based on observable facts data and established methodsBehavior side observable actionsMental processes thoughts feelings sensations perceptions motivations dreams subjective experiencesInfluence of PhilosophyAristotle o Impact of physiology on emergence of psychologyo Scientific discoveries demonstrated that the scientific method could be applied to behavior and mental processesNature VS Nurtureo Today focus on interaction of environment and genetics Rene Descartes 15961615 o Doctrine called interactive dualism Mind and body separate entities that interact to produce sensations emotions and other conscious experiencesRoots of PsychologyPhysiology The branch of biology that studies the functions and parts of living organisms o In the 1600s physiologists begin to study the workings of the brain and its relation to behavior o By the 1700s physiologists find that specific bodily functions can be traced to specific brain areas o Some early ideas such as phrenology did not stand the test of timehave scientific supportEvery time you do something new your brain changes this is still true todayDetermines character traitsbehaviors by seeing bumps on the skullFounders of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt18321920 o Founder of Psychologty1874 landmark text he wrote Principles of Physiological PsychologyThe First Major Psychological SchoolsEdward Titchener and Structuralism Student of Wundt o Professor at Cornell U o Developed approach called structuralismInvolving and studying basic components of conscious experiences o Focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes o Measured reaction timeso Criticized for relying on introspectionDefinition is in booknot given in classWilliam James and Functionalism o Started psychology at Harvard in 1870s o Opposed Wundt and Titcheners approach o His ideas shaped school of functionalismalso influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment o Functionalism stresses the importance of how behavior functions to allow people and animals to adapt to their environments Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis o 18561939 o Austrian physiciannot a psychologist o Challenge to structuralism and functionalismo Started school of thought called psychoanalysis Personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior o Behavior and personality influenced by unconscious conflicts Ex calling someone the wrong name on accident Wasnt an accident unconscious mind did this on purposeo Emphasized sexual and aggressive nature of unconscious processes Other Pioneers of Psychology
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