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Midterm

ART 101 Midterm: Exam 1: Prehistoric - Egyptian/Mycenean
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Department
Art
Course
ART 101
Professor
Ahl
Semester
Fall

Description
PrehistoricArt in Europe • Prehistoric ▯ before written documents o Have to interpret the meanings of art • Most of our documentation of Prehistoric, very Europe o Little ofAsia andAfrica Haven’t survived ▪ • 2/3 of prehistoric art we know nothing or very little about • Africa is where it all started but we have very little artifacts • Most of what we are learning comes from France o Archaeology was a big study in France • Men, women, and children produced cave paintings • These people traveled by boat; lived in communities; had clothing because depicted in painting/same with hair/wig; coloring flesh/personal adornment; language because there had to be some sort of communication to build structures • Did NOT sleep in caves Reconstruction Drawing of Prehistoric Mammoth-Bone House Location: Ukraine Date: 10,000BCE Size: 15-20 ft interior • Tusks made excellent roof supports and arched door openings • Bone framework probably covered with animal hides and turf • Found 15 small heaths (firepits) in a dwelling • First architecture we have **** • Uncovered by Soviet archaeologist • Several groups of homes up and down the river • Need: stable foundation (flat land) and water (built on bank of river) • animal skin and river mud used to plaster for insulation • fire inside (aka hearth), so holes in ceiling • bottom had powdered mineral ocher adorned the floor • based on notion of community ▯ Woman of Willendorf Location:Austria Date: 24,000 BCE Size: can hold in hand Medium: • made out of limestone • carved with flint tools • stone not from where she was found Function: • object symbolizing availability • possibly expressing health and fertility • in gynecology ▯ woman who just gave birth • placed in ground ▯ traces of soil on feet o traveled because different types of soil Style: • first prehistoric sculpture discovered*** but not the oldest • discovered in Willendorf,Austria o Once called Venus of Willendorf after the place where it was found • sculpture in the round • free standing ▯ all stone around her has been cut away • she was painted (can see in creases) and rubbed into work o pigment and saliva • closed profile • engorged breasts, bigger vulva, big tummy • intricate hair (even, all the way around) • originally colored with red ocher ▯ Woman Location: Landes Date: 30,000 BCE Size: from thumb nail to first knuckle Medium: Ivory Function: Style: • Tiny ivory head • Egg shaped head with long neck • Wide nose, defined brows • Engraved patterning on head may be hair or headdress • Lost its original cultural context • Speculated her hair was a hair net • Abstract ▯ no mouth • Found along with other bodies and tools ▯ Lion-Human Location: Germany Date: 30,000 BCE Size: Nearly a foot tall▯ surpasses most early figurines in size and complexity Medium: Mammoth ivory Function: Style: • Sculpture in the round • Human figure (probably middle) with feline head • Man! Yay not a woman like every other one we studied thus far • Free standing • Curve in arm and marks o Reason to believe scaring the body was practiced as body adornment • Found in fragments ▯ Background on caves • Caves are focal point for decoration • Decoration is quite far back from entrance • Almost exclusively animals • Mineral pigments o Wood, charcoal • Earth tones used • Rocks used to crush • Moistened with saliva o Human spray can • Animal hair for brush Spotted Horses and Human Hands Location: France Date: Horses 25,000 BCE Hands 15,000 BCE Size: each horse is about 5 feet Medium: Function: for story/prayer/hunting/mating/symbolism o Animals were considered gods in many religions Style: • 2 horses positioned back to back • Head follows natural form of rock • Black dots surround portions of its contours and fill most of its body • Painters draw what they saw • Horses overlap ▯ perspective • Abstract horses ▯ inaccurate anatomy o Shows us all the legs from the side • Determine person’s age and gender based on size • Red ocher marks around • People ate many deer so not represented in painting o Don’t paint what they eat • Consistent layout of animals throughout many caves in different places ▯ Hall of Bulls Location: Lascaux Date: 15,000 BCE Size: Medium: Function: Style: • Depicts cows, bulls, horses, and deer • Utilizes curving wall to suggest space • Horns, eyes, and hooves shown from front, heads and bodies shown from side o Composite view • Full of life and energy; accuracy of silhouettes is correct • Painted on ceilings • Horns without heads • Abstraction ▯ composite pose • Overlap in perspective • Repainted ▯ meaning visited multiple times • Ibexes, goats, mammoths, bulls, horses, deer near entrance ▯ Bird-Headed Man with Bison and Rhinoceros Location: Lascaux Date: 15,000 BCE Size: Function: Style: • Tells story • Stylistically different from other paintings • Man on ground with bison over him • Spear goes through bison • Rhinoceros runs off • Man portrayed stickily while bison has may details • No use of color • Person represented • Rigid • Bison intestines falling out • Bird is decoy • Spear going through bison • Hunting scene • Man wearing mask for hunting • Rhino came over to observe • Possibly rhino was painted later because different style • Probably visited again and again ▯ Bison Location: Spain Date: 13,000 BCE Size: Medium: red and brown ocher (shoulders, backs, flanks) black and brown ocher (legs, tails, heads) Function: Style: • Herd of bison on ceiling of main cavern • Ceiling • Rock curves used for perspective, volume • Grazing or mating patterns • Know nothing about this before ▯ Mesopotamia:Ancient Near EasternArt About the Era • natural resources and geography determined how and where civilizations were formed • Mesopotamia – land between the rivers • Climate: hot, whether is very unpredictable o Where 3 major religions were born (Judaism, Christianity, and Islamic) • Fearful relation with gods because of extreme weather conditions • No belief in permanence • Stone not near here, stone for sculpture had to be imported o Not stone architecture; no strong defense, constant warfare and invasion • Region also known as “fertile crescent” • Agrian culture, wheat, barley, grown here o Irrigation • Wheel; animals were domesticated (sheep in particular) • Flax was raised to produce linen • Lots of what we know about civilization started here • No belief in afterlife until written in 2550 BCE • Religious leaders are government and located in temple • Ancient Near Eastern cuneiform is first writing we have o Origin of cities and planning o Domestication of animals and plants • ALLABOUT RELIGION before this region SumerianArt Reconstruction Drawing of the Anu Ziggurat and White Temple Date: 3000 BCE Location: Uruk Size: about 40 feet high Medium: • Mud-brick o Constantly eroded by rain ▪ Constantly constructed and reconstructed Function: • To elevate temple to the heaves o On cloudy days, clouds would scrape temple ▯ interpreted as gods coming to earth • Sky god • Organized architecture for religion • Temple was “waiting room” o Waited for gods to descend into temple • Go up stairs on hands and knees, to minimize importance • Prayers were always for good harvest Style: • Irregular in shape, just like mountains • Temple is square; many side rooms • Altar outside because sacrifices (leopards and young virgin women) ▯ ▯ Nanna (good of Moon and Fertility, also called Sin) Ziggurat Date: 2100 BCE Location: Ur Size: 90 feet high Medium: baked mud-brick Function: prayer (seeAnu Ziggurat) Style: • 3 sets of stairs converging at top (all straight, geometric) • Walls slope downward to prevent rain from forming puddles and eroding brick pavement below • Extensive contact with Egypt • More symmetrical • High and shadow play • Architecture becomes more permanent, symmetrical, elaborate ▯ Carved Alabaster Vase Date: 3000 BCE Location: Uruk Size: 3 feet tall Medium: alabaster = fine white stone; imported from Egypt Function: • Temple function: made for liquid offerings (libations) o Residue found inside (milk and honey) • Tells narrative ▯ depicting of trade o FIRST recorded way of recording narrative ▯ direction of reading Style: • Organized in 3 registers • Low relief; ground line (part of literacy) • Composite pose; movement; variations of offerings • Lower ▯ source of life in the natural world (water and plants) ▯alternating rams and ewes march single file • Middle ▯ naked men carry baskets of foodstuff • Top ▯ goddess Iananna accepts offering from 2 standing figures; she stands in front of gate and the 2 men face her ▯ Face of a Woman Date: 3000 BCE Location: Uruk Size: life size Medium: head (marble, stone, bronze); body (wood) Function: prayer Style: • May represent temple goddess • Inlay set in brows and eyes • Stripped of original paint and wig • Free standing • Attached to wooden body ▯ too expensive to have full marble • Head of goddess herself • Inlaid brows possibly with bitumen (like asphalt) • Used to be filled with shells and lapis lazuli • Hair/headdress was of gold • Unsmiling mouth to maintain fragmenting nature, not to restore • Losses on nose ▯ Votive Statues from the Square Temple Date: 2900 BCE Location: Diyala Valley, Eshnunna Size: various Medium: limestone Function: • Images dedicated to the gods • Under alter • Statues served as surrogates or replacements for owners o When owners died, statues no longer needed Style: • Hands clasped in respect; bold, staring eyes = attentive gaze to gods • Women are as muscular as men • Broad proportions, not anatomically correct • Conelike skirts; tube like skirt; simplified • Carved on back, very enlightening • Holding small libation cups for offering • Soft stone ▯ broken; no permanence = mortality • Unibrow and HUGE eyes ▯ attentive toward alter; shell with inlay ▯ Great Lyre with Bull’s Head and Mythological Figures Date: 2500 BCE Location: Ur Size: 55 inches long Medium: gold, lapis lazuli; plaque has carved shell inlaid with bitumen Function: • harp • Rested over body of woman who had presumably played it during a funeral ceremony for the royal figure buried nearby Style: • Depicts 4 images in 4 registers (inlaid shell) ▯ just over music box • Animals playing harp ▯ bring food to afterlife • Detail in bull head ▯ flared nostrils, skin above eyes • Gold leaf smoothed over carved head ▯ ▯ Akkad • Moved away from godfearing to place of war • Warlords, different from Sumerians • Language similar toArabic and Hebrew • Warriors who conquered and were greatly feared • Succeeded because smelted metals o Had tools that others did not have ▪ Spears and shields Head of Man Date: 2300 BCE Location: Nineveh Size: life size Medium: • Bronze o Semi liquid and solid ▯ poured into mold ENGINEERING ▪ Function: signified power of the ruler Style: • Known asAkkadian Ruler • Was despised because statue was mutilated (eye) o Probably by enemy • Hollow-cast sculpture using the lost-wax casting o Earliest known for this • Big curling beard and elaborate braiding hair • Inlaid eyes • Smooth nose and mustache and eyebrows • Corners of mouth upturned ▯ Stele of Narimsin Date: 2300 BCE Location: Sippar Size: 6.5 feet Medium: stone Function: • tells story of one of his most important military victories o culture that is preoccupied with war Style: • Ruler Naram-sin pictured here • Hieratic scale; registers; relief • He is elevated above ground • Holds an arsenal weapon o Claims divinity for himself • Approximating himself to sun god with crown o Totally disrespectful from our perspective but godlike for them • Inscriptions ▯ later “ I conquered the land of the conquer” • Narmasin will ascend mountain to see moon and sun gods face to face • His soldiers ▯ looking up at him • Naramsin stepping on mutilated body • Defeated members wailing and begging for mercy • Muscular, tapering waste • Shape of mountain echoes original shape of stele ▯ Lagash Votive Statue of Gudea of Lagash Date: 2100 BCE Location: Girsu Size: Medium: diorite • Difficult to break • Came from Egypt Function: pray to the gods Style: • Strong, peaceful, pious ruler worthy of divine favor • Wears long garment; right should bare; wears cap with wide bring carved with a pattern to represent fleece • Holds vessel where life-giving water flows in 2 streams, each filled with leaping fish • Emphasized eyes, head, smoothly muscled arms • Face is youthful and serene • Anatomically correct ▯ coming from Egypt • Skirt has inscription o Dreams to flow like water o Describes himself as humble service • Deliberate revival of style from other votive statue ▯ Babylon Law Code of Hammurabi Date: 1800 BCE Location: Susa Size: 7.5 feet Medium: diorite Function: • Rights, duties, and punishments for wrongdoings engraved o Land; men and women roles; theft • Punishment and judegement • Precious work of art and historical document Style: • On top, Hammurabi standing in altitude of prayer before Shamash (god of Sun and justice) • Hammarabi standing in front of Shamash siting ▯ hieratic scale • Sector of power passed • Shamash on mountains • Composite view of Shamash • Same sheppards hat as Gudea • Early attempt to show perspective through curing forms ▯ Assyria • Very powerful Assurnasipal II Killing Lions Date: 800 BCE Location: Kalhu Size: Medium: Function: Style: • On chariot drawing bows on lions • Banging cymbals to madden animals • Lion advancing in rear with bows already protruding body • Another beast already collapsed underneath the horses • King protected by men with swords and shields • Dynamic movement • Perspective; muscular; composite pose ▯ Guardian Figures (Lamassus) Date: 700 BCE Location: Size: Medium: Function: guard throne room Style: • One on each side • Bearded head of man, powerful body of lion or bull, wings of eagle, and the horned headdress of a god ▯ Egyptian Sculpture and Painting About Egypt • Nile very central (1000 mile flow through) o Transportation, agriculture, trade…very predictable climate o Nile overflows banks Nile River Valley and soil are rich and land was provided to colonize • Last part of Europe to be conquered by Roman Empire • Many minerals, gold, silver, lapis lazuli • God of Nile = god of underworld (Osiris) • Believed no end in mortality, no word for eternity yet o Personal immortality of soul • Ka = soul ▯ lived on after death if body was buried correctly (mummified, only heart not removed because heart is resting place of soul) o Nourished the soul o Statues to tend to need of soul • Pharaoh’s (“great house”) ▯ thought to be the children of sun god, Ra, bloodline never contaminated o Brothers and sisters married • Rulers truly thought to be divine • Longevity in Egyptian culture • Anatomy, medicine discovered because of mummification o Believably portrayed in art • Math, astronomy, writing, literature, navigation, geology Pyramids at Giza Date: 2500 BCE Location: Giza Size: (Khufu) 480 feet Medium: limestone and granite Function: • Burial site for 3 successive kings: Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure • Site planned to fol
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