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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201
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June 10 2013Chapter 1Hierarchy of Biological Organization1Biosphereall of the environments on Earth that are inhabited by life land water and several layers of the atmosphere2Ecosystemsall living things in a particular area along with nonliving environmental components with which life interacts soil water air components light3Communitythe entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem4Populationindividuals of a species living within the bounds of a particular area5Organismindividual living things6Organ and organ systembody part consisting of 2 or more tissues which carries out a specific function within an organism liver kidney7Tissuegroup of cells from similar embryonic origins that combine to form organs8Cellthe fundamental unit of structure and function in life neuron hepatocyte9Organellevarious functional components that make up cells chloroplast mitochondria10 Moleculechemical structure consisting of 2 or more atoms chlorophyll in plants11 Atombasic unit of matter hydrogen12 Subatomic particleall units of matter smaller than the atom protons neutrons electrons lots of others3 Each level of biological organization has emergent propertiesEmergent property is a property that emerges as a result of interactions between components as complexity increasesIf you mix all of the components of a chloroplast together in a test tube photosynthesis will not occurThe molecules must react in a specific wayWith each step up in a biological hierarchy new emergent properties are seenSodiumChlorineSodium Chloride Salt4 Life has the ability to acquire material and energyThe material and energy are often transformedEnergycapacity to do workAll levels of biological organization are thermodynamically open systems exchanging energy heat and work and matter with their environment5 Structure and function are relatedForm dictates functionForm and FunctionJust as a tool such as a hammer is crafted to perform a certain task the anatomy of plants and animals determine the task that they performPlant leavesthin and flat to maximize sunlight absorptionBird wing bonesinner structure like a honeycomb lightweight and strong
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