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Bio Midterm Study Guide (scored 92%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
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Experiment 1 Media Preparation and SterilizationSummaryLists various ways to grow cultures and sterilize materialsLook at Vocabulary below for detailsVocabularyculture mediuma medium that contains nutrients for growthcomplex mediuma culture medium composed of digests of chemically undefined substances yeast meat extracts etcdefined mediuma culture medium for which a precise chemical composition is knownbrotha liquid culture mediumsolid mediuma medium contains a solidifying agent such as agarplatesolid media in petri dishesdeeptest tubes containing solid media used for anaerobic growthslanttest tubes containing solid media that solidified at an angle surface used for maintenance of stock culturessterilizationthe killing or removal of all living organisms and their viruses from a growth mediumautoclavea sealed device that kills bacteria by heated steam under pressure 121C at 15 psi for 15 minutes used for liquid media and heatresistant bacteriadry heat sterilizationkills by oxidation effectsflamingform of dry heat sterilization the one we use in classhotair sterilizationitems placed in an oven at 170C for 2 hours used for glasswarefiltrationa filter with pores too small for the passage of microorganisms is used such as cellulose acetate or cellulosegaseous chemosterilizationuses chemicals to sterilize heat sensitive objects such as plastic petri dishesethylene oxidetoxic and explosive chemical used in chemosterilization coldsterilizationgaseous chemosterilization is an example because no heat is involvedelectromagnetic radiationincludes microwaves ultraviolet radiation Xrays gamma rays and electronsultraviolet UV radiationcauses damage to the DNA thymine dimers leading to death of organism cannot penetrate solid opaque or lightabsorbent surfaces used to sterilize exposed surfacesionizing radiationcauses ions and other reactive molecules to be produced that degrade or alter biopolymers such as DNA or protein used to sterilize food and medical suppliesExperiment 2 Culturing Microorganisms from the EnvironmentSummaryWe looked at cultures of microorganisms from varying surfaces such as floor fingers hair sick clothes air dirt and noseResult Microorganisms are everywhere ubiquitousVocabularypathogenicdiseasecausing for humans microorganisms minority of microorganismsnosocomialhospital acquired infections from nonpathogenic microogranisms infecting a sick personExperiment 3 Hand WashingSummaryWashing hands is important in preventing the spread of microorganismsMicroorganisms normal flora are always present but not harmfulTransient flora are temporary and either die or leave quicklyResults Dial and Ivory better than BacDown and Water onlyVocabularyinfectious dosenumber of microorganism or viruses sufficient to establish an infectionnormal resident flora microbiotamicroorganisms that live on or in the body but do not produce disease under normal conditionsacidicpH between 4 and 6 describes skinExperiment 4 Colony MorphologySummaryWe learned how to describe colony morphology of microorganisms grown on agar colony morphology dependent on growth medium with the table on page 14Vocabulary
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