Chapter 26 Microbial Diseases

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
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Chapter 26 Microbial DiseasesSkin and SoftTissue InfectionsStaphylococcus aureus opportunistic pathogen can be bad under certain conditionsBoils pimpleswalled off from body with fibrinImpetigo skin infectionScalded skin syndrome due to exfoliative toxin makes skin peal offCan produce hemolysins superantigen enterotoxin A food poisoning coagulase leukocidin superantigen TSST toxic shock syndromeS aureus is the most common to cause food poisioningCan also cause pneumoniameningitis less commonTreatment with penicillinsMRSAmethicillinresistantS aureusHorizontal transfer of drugresistant genesEvolved in environment with high levels of anitbioticHospitalsnosocomial infectionsResistant to all drugs except vancomycinStreptococcus pyogenes 60 strains strep throat pharyngitis 510 of sore throats Most are caused by virusdiagnosis blood agar slow antibody test rapid infections of the inner ear impetigo skin infection Scarlet feverexotoxin superantigen can follow pharyngitis pink rashstrawberry tongueRheumatic feverautoimmune antibodies against S pyogenes react with host tissuedamages heart valves necrotizing fasciitis flesh eating diseaseMany viruses can cause skin rashesUsually infect through respiratory tractChickenpoxcaused by Varicellazoster virus VZV a herpesvirusVZV can lay dormant in nerve cells for long periods of time Shingles is caused by the migration of VZV to the skin painful blistersMeasles rubeola caused by a paramyxovirusSymptoms fever cough rashMumps inflammation of salivary glandsRubellaGerman measlesCaused by a togavirussymptomssimilar to measles but milderCan be prevented with MMR vaccine measles mumps and rubella vaccineMany fungal skin infections athletes foot and ring wormRespiratory Tract InfectionsMost respiratory pathogens are transferred from person to person via respiratory aerosols coughing sneezing talking breathing David Transmission usually occurs over short distances because microorganisms survive poorly in airPathogens that can survive dry conditions such as many Gram Mycobacteria are easier to transmit by airStreptococcus pneumoniae lower respiratory diseases can also cause meningitispneumococcal pneumoniaInflammatory reaction in alveoliUsually a secondary infectionsome other illness first then since immune system is suppressed and susceptible to other infectionspneumoniaCapsule protects organism from phagocytosisuntreated 30 mortality rateAlveoli become filled with blood bacteriaphagocytic cellsSymptomssudden onset of chills labored breathing pleural chest painPneumonia can also be caused by viruses other bacteria or fungi S Pneumoniae is most common to cause pneumoniaS pneumoniae is found in respiratory flora in about 40 of healthy peopleCorynebacterium diphtheriaeChildhood upper respiratory infection diphtheria
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