Chapter 9 Notes Worksheet

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CHEM 1002
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Chapter 9 Organic ChemistryPart 1 Hydrocarbons What is organic chemistryCarbonCarbon is unique in that carbon atoms can bond to each other to formand Carbon always hasbonds totalCarbonbased life95 chemical compounds contain All forms of life on this planet are based on Aliphatic hydrocarbons alkanesSimplest organic moleculesComposed of two elementsand Only havebonds is the smallest alkaneAlkanes are often calledhydrocarbonsPropane gas is another common example 3D shape of alkanes Naming alkanesPrefix indicates the number of carbons Table 91 Prefix meth eth prop but pent hex hept oct non decof C PrefixanenameEx pentane octane decaneCondensed structural formulasExample propane ball and stick model condensed structural formulaAlkanes problemsolvingThe general formula of alkanes is CH n2n2 Problem write the formula for nonaneNonane has 9 carbons CCCCCCCCCFill in the remaining spaces with hydrogens The molecular formula is CH CH 9292920 Homologous seriesAlkane chains that are alike in composition but differ inor length of chainTable 92Alkane propertiesThey burnAlkanes are members of a homologous series that changes by the number of CH groups 2 Members of a homologous series exhibit properties that vary in a regular and predictable mannerLength of chain determines boilingmelting point Table 93 CH gas vs CH oilvs CH wax 388181838 Alkane isomersIsomers have the samebut the molecules have differentand different condensed formulasExample CHbutaneisobutane 410CHCHCHCHCHCHCH 3223323Naming branched alkanes Step 1count the number of carbons in the longest carbon chain and use thecorresponding alkane name Table 91Step 2number the carbons in longest chain in one of two possible directionsFind the direction that gives lowest number to the first branch Step 3 Note branches are called substituents They are named like linear hydrocarbons with same number of carbons but the suffix yl is added to their names instead of ane Write down their names and put their position numbers in front of them with a dash ie 5ethyl
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