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PSYC 2000

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Chapter 12: Social Psychology Know the three primary areas of social psychology, as well as relevant related concepts that fall under each (see below). Social Psychology: concerned with how a person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others – more concerned with individual Sociology: study and classification of human societies o Social Influence: The ways in which a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior can be affected by others. In other words, how we are influenced by others.  Conformity – voluntarily yielding to social norms; changing one’s own behavior to more closely match the actions of others  Ex of conformity: paul makes his grass cut to avoid complaints from neighbors  Define and distinguish from compliance and obedience.  Be able to correctly label an example  What was Asch’s classic study? The study involved actors and one real participant. They were presented a white card with a standard line and three other comparison lines and asked to judge the line lengths. Actors answered correctly at first and then consistently gave the wrong answers. The subjects would conform to the group and give the wrong answers.  Name conditions that increase the likelihood of conformity: group size, group is unanimous (lack of dissension), group observes one’s behavior, culture can encourage respect for social standard (collectivist cultures show more conformity), feelings of incompetence or low self esteem  Compliance - when people change their behavior as a result of another person or group asking or directing them to change  Define and distinguish from conformity and obedience.  What are 4 techniques used to get people to comply with a request? Be able to correctly label an example of each if given a scenario. a. Foot in the door: once a small request is secured, a larger request follows b. Door in the face: once a larger request is refused, it is followed by a second smaller and more reasonable request c. Lowball: once a commitment is made, the cost of that commitment is increased. Deception is involved during the time of request. d. That’s-not-all: persuading person makes an offer, but before the target can respond, the persuader throws in an extra something to make the deal look even sweeter. Also operates on reciprocity  Obedience - when one changes his/her behavior at the command of an authority  Define and distinguish from compliance and conformity  What is Milgram’s classic study? Investigated the effects of authority on obedience: why are war crimes committed by seemingly normal people? The subject was told to shock the actor with a higher “voltage” with every successive incorrect answer from the actor  Name factors that increase the likelihood of obedience. a. Physical proximity (if teacher is closer to learner, obedience decreases) b. Status of authority figure (if status decreases, obedience decreases) c. Depersonalization of victim (making the victim dethatched increases obedience) d. lack of defiant role models (decrease of obedience if someone says it is wrong)  What is Zimbardo’s Prison Study? Subjects played either prisoners or guards. Prisoners were arrested, fingerprinted, dressed, and referred to by number. Guards were dressed and given control over prisoners. What did this experiment reveal about social roles? Subjects became their social roles in action, thought, and feeling. What are social roles? Shared experiences about how people in certain positions are suppose to behave  Group Influence  Define what a group is. Groups consist of two or more individuals who INTERACT and are INTERDEPENDENT Be able to identify, if given an example, whether or not the example represents a group. Bad Ex: divorced fathers in Baltimore  not a group because there is no interaction / Good Ex: social support group  Group Think. Define and be able to identify an example. Make sure you can name some characteristics associated with group think. Occurs when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking. Characteristics: suspend their critical thinking, censor dissent as the pressure to conform increases, “mind guards” try to shield the group from info that contradicts the group’s view, when presented with a conflict they think in terms of “us” versus “them”, oversimplify and create and outgroup enemy, overestimate outgroup enemy.  Group Polarization. Define and be able to identify an example. Occurs when group discussion strengthens a group’s dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction (attitude/ opinion); does NOT involve widening the gap between two factions in a group. Group Polarization is due to Social comparison and Informational social influence.  Social Facilitation/Social Impairment/Social Loafing. Define each and be able to identify examples. Make sure you can distinguish between each. a. Social Facilitation: tendency for the presence of other people having a positive impact on performance of an easy task (increases arousal to optimal level) / Ex: cyclists do better with other competition b. Social impairment: the tendency for the presence of other people having a negative impact on the performance of a difficult task (creating an arousal that is too high that impedes ability to preform) / Ex; may not do well on presentation because of the presence of teacher or classmates) c. Social Loafing: reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups compared to when they work by themselves i. Reduced efficiency resulting from loss of coordination ii. Loss of personal responsibility o Social Cognition: The mental processes people use to make sense of the world around them. In other words, how we think about others.  Attribution. Be able to define. Attribution is the process of inferring the causes of mental states, behaviors, and events, which occur to others and ourselves.  What is Weiner’s Model? He found that people often focus on what they think is the stability underlying the causes for behavior. Stable causes are permanent. Unstable causes are temporary. If given an applied example, be able to define and distinguish between internal vs. external attributions and stable vs. unstable attributions. Internal (Dispositional) Explanation : person is naturally aggressive (behavior reflects the person) vs External (Situational) Explanation: something happened to a person to make them aggressive (behavior due to situation)  Example of reactions to failing an exam: a. Stable/internal “not smart enough” b. Unstable/internal: “wasn’t motivated” c. External/stable: “instructor sucks” d. Unstable/external: “bad luck”   Name 3 attribution biases mentioned in class. Two commonly found in individualist cultures and one commonly found in collectivistic cultures. [Hint: two were noted on a slide and one you were instructed to write down] a. Fundamental Attribution Error: overestimates internal factors (blame people) more than external factors (circumstances) b. Self-serving Bias: attribute one’s successes to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors c. Self Effacing Bias: prominent in collectivist cultures; succeeded because other people helped them/ downplay their own contribution to success  Attitudes. Be able to define.  What is an attitude? Positive and Negative evaluations of objects of thoughts Be able to identify the affective (emotional feelings stimulated by the object of thought – “im scared of spiders”), cognitive (beliefs people hold about the object of thought- “I believe spiders are dangerous”), and behavior (action taken in regard to the object of thought – “im going to avoid spiders”) component of an attitude.  Explain the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Attitudes are mediocre predictors of actual behavior (avg correlation of about 800 studies = .41)/ Attitudes vary along the follow dimensions: strength, accessibility, ambivalence, specificity  What is an implicit attitude? Covert attitudes that are expressed in subtle automatic responses over which one has little conscious control/ ex: racial prejudice What is the impact of implicit racial prejudice?  What are different ways that attitudes are formed? Direct contact, Direct instruction, and Interaction with others  What is cognitive dissonance? Sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to that person’s attitudes; ex: changing your attitude in a positive way toward a pointless task as a result of putting so much effort – effort justification  How do we persuade people to change their attitudes? Through the Source, the Message, or the Target Audience…What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model and what does it tell us about persuasion? a. Central Route- based on content and logic of the message  leads to durable attitude changes b. Peripheral Route based on non-message factors such as attractiveness, emotion, and credibility  Impression Formation : the forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person  How is the primacy effect and stereotypes related to impression formation? a. Related to stereotypes because the test includes drawing conclusions about what the person is likely to do based to the category (preset characteristics) the person is assigned to b. Related to primacy effect because the first impressions are more important than later o Social Interaction: In other words, how we interact with others. Social interactions are the positive or negative relationships between people.  Prejudice/Discrimination  Distinguish between prejudice and discrimination a. Prejudice: (attitude) Negative thoughts and feelings about a group based on the social group in which they belong b. Discrimination: (action) Treating other people differently based on the social group in which they belong, despite the situation calling for equal treatment.  What are an in-group and an out-group? And, how do they relate to how people learn prejudice? a. In-group: social groups with whom a person identifies; “us” b. Out-group: social groups with whom a person does NOT identify; “them” c. Relation to how people learn preujudice: Realistic conflict theory= prejudice and discrimination increases when in and out groups are in conflict (occurs when searching for limited resources/ like jobs) i. Social cognitive theory- views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences ii. Social identity theory- views a person’s identity within a social group as being explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison iii. Stereotype vulnerability- not related to the development of prejudice; the effect that people’s awareness of stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior (explains why people preform poorly when they feel stereotyped) d. Extra note: Scapegoating= in-group displaces negative emotions on a group with the least power (can happen when economy tanks)  Liking/Loving  What is interpersonal attraction? Liking or having a desire to have a relationship with another person. How do the following concepts relate to its development? a. Physical attractiveness – physical beauty is a main factor individuals choices for selecting people b. Proximity – the closer together, the more likely to form relationship (exposure effect) c. Similarity – like being around others who are similar d. Reciprocity – like people who like us  What is Sternberg’s Triangular Love Theory? What are the different types of love that it explains? Be able to identify examples of the types of love.  Intimacy: emotional tie or bond with another person  Commitment: decision to continue a relationship  Passion: physical attraction and arousal  Different combinations of love create different types of love  We all strive for consummate love (all 3)  Aggression/Prosocial Behavior  What is aggression and what contributes to its expression? Aggression is behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person (deliberate). Contributions: a. Frustration-aggression hypothesis: suggests aggression as a product of frustration b. Genetic basis as shown through twin studies c. Amygdala and other structures of limbic system trigger aggressive responses when stimulated d. Chemical influences such as testosterone or alcohol e. Violence in the media repeated linked to aggression in children  What is prosocial behavior? Socially desirable behavior that benefits others. What is altruism? A form of prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself. What variables influence people’s decisions to help others? Be able to identify the likelihood that someone will help when given a scenario. a. Noticing: realizing that there is a situation that might be an emergency b. Defining an emergency: interpreting the cues as signaling an emergency c. Taking Responsibility: personally assuming the responsibility to act d. Planning a course of action: deciding how to help and what skills might be needed e. Taking Action: actually helping  Diffusion of Responsibility: hindrance to helping behavior; bystanders in an event all think someone else is going to take the initiative Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders 1. How do we determine what is normal and what is abnormal behavior? Know the 5 criteria. 1. Abnormal behavior is behavior that includes two or more of the following criteria i. Is the behavior unusual? People are often said to have abnormal behavior because their behavior does not match with given situation (EX: being extremely depressed in the absence of any real stressor) ii. Does the behavior go against social norms? People are often said to have a disordered behavior if their behavior deviates from what society considers acceptable iii. Does the behavior cause the person significant subjective discomfort? Frequently, a diagnosis of a psychological disorder is based on the individuals report of great personal distress iv. Is the behavior maladaptive? People can be judged to have a psychological disorder because their everyday adaptive behavior is impaired. v. Does the behavior cause the person to be dangerous to themselves or others? People are often said to have a disorder if their behavior is likely to harm themselves (EX: cutting, suicide) or to harm others (EX: aggressive behavior, homicide) 2. What is the difference between psychological disorder and insanity? 1. Psychological disorder: any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm others, or harms their ability to function in daily life (medical term) 2. Insanity: refers to the inability to take responsibility for ones actions. People can use insanity defense only if they were unable to distinguish right from wrong at the time they committed the crime 3. What are the 5 axes of the DSM-IV-TR? Be able to identify what axes a client’s characteristic should be placed on. [Note: You do NOT need to memorize the ranges for the GAF] 1. Axis 1: Is a clinical disorder present? (EX: major depression) 2. Axis 2: Is a personality disorder or intellectual disorder (formerly mental retardation) present? (stable or enduring) (EX: NPD) 3. Axis 3: Is a general medical condition also present? Affects psychological well- being (EX: chromosome disorder, sickle cell anemia) 4. Axis 4: Are psychosocially or environmental problems also present? Affects psychological adjustment (EX: death of a loved one, job loss, poverty) 5. Axis 5: What the Global Assessment of Functioning? Overall judgment of functioning and mental health What are anxiety disorders? What is thought to cause them or be related to their progression? 4. For the following anxiety disorders, know (a) what it is, and (b) what salient criteria are used to make the diagnosis. You will need to be able to correctly label the disorder, if given an obvious case example. 1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder i. Disorder marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat ii. Person has feelings of excessive anxiety/worry from no real source iii.Called pre-floating anxiety 2. Phobic Disorder i. Phobia- An irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity that presents no realistic danger ii. Criteria: fear of interacting with others or being in a social setting that might lead to negative evaluation (social phobia) and irrational fear of objects or situations (specific phobia) i. What are the top 3 types of specific phobias? 1. Animals (zoophobia) 2. Heights (acrophobia) 3. Blood (hematophobia) ii. What does biological preparedness have to do with the types of phobias most often developed? Phobias may be learned through pairing a neutral or harmless stimulus with an unconditionally frightening event – causing the person to associate fear with the harmless stimulus iii.What is evaluative conditioning? 1. Changes in the liking of a stimulus the result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli 3. Panic Disorder i. Characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly, causing the person difficulty in adjusting to daily life i. Criteria: recurrent unexpected panic attacks (a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort which reaches a peak within 10 minutes ), after the first one, there is a persistent concern about implications – followed by either an absence or presence of agoraphobia i. What is the relationship between Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia? Be able to define agoraphobia. Panic disorder often leads to agoraphobia. Agoraphobia is the fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible. ii. Distinguish between a Panic Attack and Panic Disorder. 1. Panic Attack-a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which four or more of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within ten minutes: heart palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, dizziness, fear of dying, chills/hot flashes 2. Panic disorder- must have a 1 month period following the panic attack where you are trying to avoid that certain situation that caused the panic attack 2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) i. Disorder in which intruding, recurring (obsession) thoughts create anxiety that is temporarily relieved by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior (compulsion) ii. Criteria: obsessions and compulsions cause marked distress, are time consuming, and significantly interfere with the person’s normal routine. i. Distinguish between an obsession and a compulsion 1. Obsessions are persistent ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate and that cause marked anxiety or distress 2. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts, the goal of which is to prevent or reduce anxiety or distress 3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) i. A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor (traumatic event), with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than one month ii. Criteria: person has been exposed to a traumatic event personally experiences or witnessed, person avoids stimuli associated with trauma, and symptoms of increased arousal i. What characteristics of the event increase the likelihood of developing PTSD? 1. The number of incidents increase the likelihood ii. What is one key predictor of the development of PTSD related to the person’s reaction to the event? 1. Reaction at the time of the event What are mood disorders? What is thought to cause them or be related to their progression? 5. What are the two basic types of mood disorders? 1. A class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes i. Two basic types are Unipolar (Major Depressive) and Bipolar (Cyclothemia) 6. For the following mood disorders, know (a) what it is and its symptoms, and (b) what salient criteria are used to make the diagnosis. You will need to be able to correctly label the disorder, if given an obvious case example. 1. Major Depressive Disorder i. Severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause, or is too severe for current circumstances. Disorder includes persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure. It is characterized by one or more depressive episodes that last for at least 2 weeks and during those same 2 weeks you must have at least 5 of the following symptoms: depressed mood, diminished interest/pleasure, significant weight loss or gain, not enough or too much sleep, fatigue, feeling worthless, concentration and decision making problems, thoughts of suicide 2. Dysthymia. [Note: Know the major distinction from Major Depression. Don’t need to know specific diagnosing criteria.] i. Mild to moderate form of depression, chronic, and you feel this way for two years or more ii. Distinction 3. Bipolar Disorder [Note: Be able to distinguish between a manic and a depressive episode.] i. Severe mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes ii. Manic episodes: having the quality of excessive excitement, energy, and elation or irritability (usually shorter episodes) iii.Major depressive episode: gloomy, slowness of thought process, obsessive worrying, negative self-image, fatigue, decreased sex-drive, trouble sleeping (usually longer episodes) 4. Cyclothymia. [Note: Know the major distinction from Major Depression. Don’t need to know specific diagnosing criteria.] i. Cycle from mild to moderate depression, lasts for two or more years What is an eating disorder? What generally has been associated with the development of eating disorders? 7. For the following eating disorders, know (a) what it is and its symptoms, and (b) what salient criteria (main features) are involved in making the diagnosis. You will need to be able to correctly label the disorder, if given an obvious case example. 1. An eating disorder is a psychiatric illness characterized by an extreme desire to be thin, intense fear of weight gain, and severe disturbance in eating behavior. It leads to individual’s greatly restricting food intake or binge; use of unhealthy compensatory methods to control weight, and disgust or embarrassment with ones self. 1. Anorexia i. A condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15% or more below ideal body weight occurs ii. Main features: refusal to maintain normal body weight, intense fear of gaining weight, and significant disturbance in the persons perception of size and shape i. Symptoms: dehydration, severe chemical imbalances, organ damage/failure 2. Bulimia i. A condition in which a person develops a cycle of “binging” or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain ii. Characterized by: 1. Eating, in a discrete period of time (EX: 2 hours), an amount of food that is larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances 2. A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (EX: a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating) i. Criteria: recurrent episodes of binge eating, recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise What is a dissociative disorder? What is the current understanding of about their causes? A dissociative disorder is a class of disorder in which many people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity. 8. List and define three dissociative syndromes. What relationship do they have to one another? Be able to correctly label the disorder, if given an obvious case example. 1. Dissociative Amnesia- sudden loss of memory for personal information (EX: name) either partial or complete that is too extensive to be normal forgetting. 2. Dissociative Fugue- traveling away from familiar surroundings with amnesia about the trip and possible amnesia for personal information; often can lose memory for entire life including identity 3. Dissociative Identity Disorder- occurring when a person seems to have two or more distinct personalities within one body 1. Relationship to one another? DA and DF are both characterized by serious memory deficits. Most often both involve memory losses that are for a SINGLE emotionally traumatic event. DI is more controversial, with each personality having its own name, memories, traits, and physical mannerisms. The alternate personalities are often unaware of each and quite foreign from the “core” personality. 2. Relatively little is known about their causes i. Amnesia and Fugue are most often attributed to excessive stress. Most often, both involve memory losses that are for a single emotionally traumatic event ii. Some people that with DID that intentional role playing is used as an excuse for a person’s failings/behavior iii. Others believe a small minority of therapists create DID through suggestion iv. Other believe that DID is rooted in severe emotional trauma (typically childhood physical or sexual abuse) What is Schizophrenia? What are its causes, especially related to the prevailing understanding of its cause (biopsychological)? Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain exhibited in the symptoms of the mind. It has a heavy emphasis on the biological basis and research shows that people have genetic vulnerability to the disorder. Stress Vulnerability Model: psychological and environmental factors can trigger schizophrenia if the individual was genetically predisposed. 2. What are the four common symptoms of schizophrenia? Know and understand related terms such as delusions, hallucinations, etc. 1. Disorganized, irrational, and delusional thinking i. Clanging: stringing words together on a basis of sound 1. EX: mouse, house, louse ii. Word Salad: jumbled speech iii. Delusions: mistaken beliefs that are maintained despite contrary evidence (you can have delusions and not have schizophrenia) 1. Paranoid Delusions: others are talking about the person, an external source is controlling the person’s thoughts, or thoughts are being injected into the person’s mind against their will 2. Persecution Delusions: others are out to harm/get the person 2. Distorted perceptions i. Hallucinations: perceptions without sensations; frequently they are auditory and less often they are visual, somatosensory, olfactory or gustatory. The voices will insult behavior, argue, or have commands to engage in behaviors that will harm others or themselves. 3. Inappropriate emotions and actions i. Emotional Disturbance: emotional effect in Schizophrenia can be enhanced (impulsive and engage in aggressive behavior) or flattened (little or no emotional response) 1. EX: may laugh at the news of someone dying or may have no response at all ii. Behavioral Disturbance 1. Catatonia: a state or apparent unresponsiveness to external stimuli in a person who is awake 2. Unusual actions that have meaning to the person a. EX: shaking head to clear out bad thoughts 4. Deterioration in adaptive behavior i. Noticeable deterioration in the quality of the person’s routine in functioning in: work, social relations, and personal care 3. What is the difference between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia? Be able to label if the symptom represents a positive or a negative one, if given an example. In relation, what is the difference between chronic and acute. 1. Positive Symptoms: the presence of inappropriate symptoms (hallucinations, disorganized thinking, deluded ways) that are not present in normal individuals i. Acute/Reactive: rapidly develops, recovery is much better 2. Negative Symptoms: the absence of appropriate symptoms (apathy, expressionless faces, rigid bodies) that are present in normal individuals i. Chronic/Process: slow to develop, recovery is doubtful. 4. What are the three subtypes of schizophrenia highlighted in your textbook? Be able to describe them. 1. Paranoid – hallucinations and delusions about conspiracy 2. Disorganized – impairments in daily life functions 3. Catatonic- increase or decrease in motor movement What is a personality disorder? What are defining features of personality disorders? How do they differ from other types of clinical diagnoses? A personality disorder is a disorder in which a person has persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions. All personality disorders: 4. Show an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates greatly from the persons culture 5. Are pervasive and inflexible 6. Stable over time (harder to treat) 7. Lead to distress or impairment 8. Have an onset in adolescence or early adulthood(person must fully form before the onset) Chapter 15: Psychological Therapies [Note: Since we will only have one lecture on this chapter, focus predominantly on what is covered in the textbook.] 1. What are two ways psychological disorders are currently treated today? 1. Psychotherapy 2. Biomedical Therapy 2. For each of the following major types of psychotherapies, (a) be able to describe/define (including knowing the key components or approaches when using the therapy—e.g., dream interpretation, systematic desensitization), (b) identify whether it is an insight or an action therapy, and (c) know who the key people are related to the therapy. 1. Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Therapy [Note: I will NOT cover interpersonal psychotherapy as this is an eclectic approach that does not distinctly fall under one theoretical orientation]. 1. Psychoanalysis – first formal psychoanalysis to emerge; insight therapy developed by Freud that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, & urges 1. Freud developed the method of dream analysis interpret elements of a patient’s dreams; Freud believed repressed material often surfaced in dreams which included manifest content (actual events of the dream) and latent content (symbolic elements of the dream) 2. Freud adopted the method of free association unravel the unconscious mind and its conflicts; the patient lies on a couch and speaks whatever comes to his mind; Key to this approach: Patient can speak without fear of being negatively evaluated or condemned 3. Resistance refers to largely unconscious defense maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy. 4. Transference occurs when clients start relating to their therapists in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives (e.g., parents). 2. Psychodynamic Therapies – Influenced by Freud, in a face-to-face setting, psychodynamic therapists understand symptoms from a broad orientation consisting of sense of self, interpersonal relations, and ego psychology. Actions are viewed as stemming from inherited instincts, biological drives, and attempts to resolve conflicts between personal needs and social requirements; insight therapy 1. Psychoanalysis is an approach of psychodynamic theory that formed the basis for psychodynamic theory 2. Perceive the individual as an agent in his own behavior and seek to help the individual understand the unconscious meaning – that is the dynamics of troubling symptoms 2. Humanistic Therapy 1. Aims to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self-awareness and self- acceptance; Focus is on people’s sense of self and present experiences in their daily lives, rather than in early childhood; insight therapy; developed by Carl Rogers (Person-centered) and Fritz Perls (Gestalt) 1. Person-centered: NONDIRECTIVE insight that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate which promotes personal growth a.Aims to increase match between real self and ideal self so that person can be well-adjusted and happy; Unconditioned positive regard to enhance match b. Client talks, therapist listens c. Four Basic Elements i. Reflection – restating client’s words in slightly different way—key task is clarification ii. Unconditional Positive Regard – nonjudgmental acceptance (i.e., warmth, respect, & affection are given without conditions) iii. Empathy – understanding the client’s point of view and feelings iv. Authenticity – genuine open and honest communication 2. Gestalt – Form of DIRECTIVE insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing iii. What is the major drawback of both psychoanalysis and humanistic therapy? There is a lack of scientific evidence to support the basic concepts on which these therapies are founded and can have long durations for treatment (often across years) 1. Behavior Therapies: Action therapies that applies learning principles (i.e., classical & operant conditioning, and observational learning) to control, reduce, or eliminate unwanted behaviors. (don’t care about cause – only worried about changing problem behavior) 1. Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning 1. Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis: the use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior 2. Systematic Desensitization – behavior therapy used to reduce phobic responses comprised of a 3-step process a.Deep muscle relaxation training b. Construct hierarchical list of fears (least feared to greatest) c.Progressive exposure [least feared to greatest] (as opposed to flooding) 3. Aversion Therapy – form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior (Ex: rapid smoking) 4. Exposure – clients are confronted with situations that they fear so that they learn that these situations are really harmless a.In vivo (“In life” – the client is exposed to the real stimulus) b. Imagined (the client visualizes the stimulus) c.Virtual (virtual-reality technology is used by the client) d. *Note: exposure can be gradual or rapid and intense (flooding) 2. Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning 1. Using Reinforcement – strengthening of a response by applying a pleasurable consequence or removing a negative one a. Token Economy – reinforcers earned for displaying desired behavior that can be exchanged for desired things b. Contingency contract – formal agreement on behavior change, reinforcements for that change, and penalties for lack of change 2. Using Extinction – removal of reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response 3. Therapies Based on Observational Learning 1. Modeling – learning via observation and imitation a.*Participant Modeling – Model takes client through step- by-step process for desired behavior. (therapist shows client though actions) b. Modeling with Self-instruction– Model talks out loud about what he/she is doing, and then guides client to attempt through instruction. This progresses from consultant-led guided practice, to overt self-instructed practice, to covert self-instructed practice. c.Coping Modeling – Model demonstrates coping strategies that can be used to overcome common obstacles the client has in engaging in the behavior. 2. Cognitive/Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies: (Aaron Beck); action therapy; Teaches people adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions. Cognitive therapy identifies and changes distorted thinking; Cognitive-behavior therapy aims to alter the way people act (behavior therapy) and alter the way they think (cognitive therapy). 1. Cognitive distortions 1. Arbitrary inference – jumping to conclusions without any evidence (e.g., Believing that someone does not like you without any actual information to support that belief) 2. Selective thinking – focus selectively on one negative aspect of a situation, leaving out other relevant facts (e.g., Someone attends a party and afterward focuses on the one awkward look directed her way and ignores the hours of smiles) 3. Overgeneralization - making a board rule based on a few limited occurrences (e.g., believing that if one public speaking event went badly that all of them will) 4. Magnification & minimization – person blow bad things out of proportion while minimizing good things (e.g., believing that if you fail a quiz then the teacher will completely lose respect for you, that you will not graduate from college, that you will therefore never get a well-paying job, and will ultimately end up unhappy and dissatisfied with life) 5. Personalization – individual takes responsibility or blame for events unnecessarily (e.g., If a checkout clerk is rude to you and you automatically believe that you must have done something to cause it) 1. Have a general understanding of group therapy as outlined in your textbook, especially how it differs from individual and what are its advantages and disadvantages. [Note: This is not be covered in class] 1. Group therapy – gather a group of clients with similar problems together and have the group discuss problems under the guidance of a single therapist 1. Insight 2. Cognitive-behavioral style 3. *Note – person-centered, Gestalt, and behavior therapies seem to work better in group settings than psychodynamic and cognitive- behavioral therapies 4. Group structure can vary a) Family counseling or family therapy: a form of group therapy in which family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family (Ex: marital problems, sibling rivalry) b) Self-help groups or support groups: a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support (Ex: Alcoholics Anonymous, Overeaters Anonymous) 5. Advantages of group therapy a) Lower cost b) Exposure to the ways other people view and handle the same types of problems c) Opportunity for both therapist and person to see how that person interacts with others d) Social and emotional support from people who have similar or nearly identical problems to one’s own e) An extremely shy person may initially have great difficulty speaking up in a group setting but cognitive-behavioral group therapy can b effective for social phobia 6. Disadvantages of group therapy a) Therapist is no longer the only person to whom secrets and fears are revealed, which may make some more reluctant to speak freely b) Client must share therapist’s time during session c) People with sever psychiatric disorders involving paranoia, such as schizophrenia, may not be able to tolerate group- therapy sessions 7. Group therapy only effective if it is long term and when used to promote social interactions rather than attempt to reduce bizarre sympt
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