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Exam 2 Notes Psych

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PSYC 2000
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EXAM 2 STUFF29NATURE NURTURE AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENTNature vs nurture psychologys big debateoScenariooThe natureonly side states that personalities are influenced by genetic factors and remain consistent across the life spanoThenurtureonly side states that we are all essentially the same at birth and we are the product of our experiencesExperiences makes us who we areAnything is possibleoBoth influence us though our genes and our environment BEHAVIOR GENETICS AND EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGYMODULE 11Behavior genetics predicting individual differencesoBehavior Geneticists study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity and environmentoGenes vs EnvironmentoTwin StudiesIdentical v fraternal twins Monozygotic v DizygoticSame environment generally similar genesoSeparated twinsSimilar genes different environmentoGenes v EnvironmentoAdoption StudiesAre adopted children more like their biological parents or their adoptive parents Theyhave the same political beliefs attitudes But their biological bits are same as their biological parents oTemperament studiesStability across developmental stagesMore similar temperament in identical twinsAn infants personality Before having experience some infants are born more easy going less irritable the type of personality an infant is born with can be stable over time Estimating HeritabilityoHeritabilitythe extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their genesie how much of the differences among people can be explained by their genetic differencesoEstimates of heritability do not apply to individualsIf a trait has a heritability of 05 it means that the variation in the trait among different people is 50 due to genetic variation It does not imply that the trait is 50 caused by geneticsGeneEnvironment InteractionoEnvironment can influence which genes are expressedoGeneticallyinfluenced traits eg personality can shape a persons experiences and influence the reactions of othersIf the baby smiles more the parents give them more positive feedback to that which may mean that it is their nurture that makes them happy later as wellENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BEHAVIORMODULE 12
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