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Final Study Guide

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2017

Ways of knowingoIntuition know without reasoning from previous knowledgeProblem no mechanism of separating accurate from inaccurate knowledge oAuthority facts from a respected sourceProblem can be wrongPsychologist conduct behavioral research to make certain that the info they have about behavior is accurateResearch is the foundation of PsychologyDifferent ways of observing a behavior may yield different observation and these help to better understand how behaviors occuroInduction from specific to generaloDeduction from general to specificoObservationEmpiricism knowledge from experience and knowledge of the worldProblem not every can be perceived directly Problem perception can be by biasedScientific Method relies of observationoHypothesis testing testing a predicted relationship from theory or experienceMust be stated in a testable and refutable wayoObserving behaviors gives researcher a more accurate understanding of the causes of behaviors than other methods of gaining knowledge oEmpiricism is used to simply observe people in their environment Determinism the belief that behavior is caused by specific eventidentifiable oOccurs naturallyoIn extreme cases can indicate a denial of free willParsimony the assumption that the simplest explanation is the most likely to be correct Occams razoroHelps scientist test their ideas because it is easier to develop a study that might falsify a simple explanation that to develop a study that might falsify a complex oneTestability the assumption the explanation of behavior can be tested and falsified through observationoA test of a explanation of a behavior that allows that explanation of a behavior to be falsified provide a stronger test of that explanation Must avoid confirmation bias only seeking evidence that support our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts others beliefs Must avoid pseudoscience knowledge believed to be science but is not gained through experimentation Thought Field Therapy indicators of pseudoscienceoCreating a new adhoc hypothesis to explain away negative finding researcher biasoConfirmation rather than falsificationoAbsence of connectivity with other disciplinesBasicApplied Research oBasic Research goal is to understand fundamental processes of behaviorHow a behavior workswhat is the frequency of clinical depressionoApplied Research goal is to solve an everyday problemwhat is the best treatment for depressionoBasic research provided fundamental knowledge of how behaviors operate that is useful to researcher conducting applied studiesoApplied Researchers are concerned with external validity degree to which the results of a study apply to individuals and real world applicationoBasic is concerned with internal validity concerned with the causality of the variable Pitfalls oAssume that psychologist are only helping professions and ignoring the scienceoPositive test bias designing tests that dont look to falsify oMisinterpreting causation correlation does not equal causation Confusing the results as the causeoDismissing basic research because is not designed to solve a realworld problemChapter 2 Steps In the Research Process Hypothesis DevelopmentChoosing a research question
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