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Exam 2017 2 (got 96%)

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PSYC 2017
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Chapter 1Intuition knowing without reasoningThere is no way to separate accurate from inaccurate knowledgein science used to form some hypothesisAuthority facts stated from a respected sourceThe authority can be wrong or have different prioritiesIn science used in the design phase of a studyRationalism knowledge from reasoningin science used to derive the hypothesisEmpiricism Knowledge from experienceNot everything can be perceived directly and perception can be biased by expectation and past experienceIn science observation used to collect dataScience acquiring knowledge that reduces errors and biases of the other methods it combines empiricism rationalism intuition and authority Scientific Method 1Identification of the problem and forming a hypothesis aExpress the expected or predicted relationships between the variables bStated in a form that is testable and refutable2Designing the ExperimentaExperimental variables iIndependent Variables 1Study method iiResponse Variables 1Dependent variables aTest performance3Conducting the Experiment 4Testing the hypothesis through stat analysis5Communicating the research resultsInduction reasoning from specific to generalspecific experiments to general hypothesis or theory sample to population Deduction reasoning from general to specificinvolved in forming hypothesis from theory Hypothesis testing testing a predicted relationship from theory or experience scientific method employs induction and deduction expresses the expected or predicted relationships between the variables stated in a form that is testable and refutable Determinism uniformity or regularity in nature the belief that behavior is caused by specific events not randomReality in Nature human behavior beliefs thoughts and feelings are real and therefore can be studied using the scientific methodControl eliminating the influence of extraneous variablesEx Clever Hans Horse that did mathOperationism actual procedures used to measure or manipulate the variable Ex watching a scary movie will make you anxious the operational definition would state that your heart rate increasesReplication repeating a study to see if the same results are obtainedIntergroup another group Intersubject another subject or person Intrasubject SAME personsubjectIf one fails to replicateoriginal effect occurred by chancereplication introduced extraneous variables because it wasnt an EXACT replicationTheory a set of propositions that attempt to specify the interrelationships among a set of conceptssummarize and integrate existing dataguide research Scientists needs certain roles in science CuriositySerendipity the art of finding one thing while looking for another requires inquisitiveness and openness to a new and different phenomenon EX penicillinPatience Objectivity the influence of attitudes values and opinions on observations and interpretations should be limited as much as possible
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