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Psychology 3050 Exam 1 Outline

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PSYC 3050
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Psychology 3050 Exam 1 OutlineChapter 1 IO Psychology Then and NowWhat is IO PsychologyIndustrialorganization IO psychology is the application of psychological principles and theories to the workplace They study the attitudes and behaviors of employees and employers interpersonal relationships at work the structure of organizations and organizational policies the complex processes of motivation and leadership both individual and organizational performance the context culture and climate of organizations and the match between people and jobs Industrial psych deals with job analysis training selection and performance measurementappraisal whereas organizational deals with motivation work attitudes and leadership as well as the structure culture and processes of organizations But they usually go together How are IO Psychologists trainedThe Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology SIOP Division 14 of the American Psychological Association APA is the professional association with which most io psychologists affiliate Most have obtained a PhD but many have masters degrees as well as in a graduate program house in a business school SIOP publishes guidelines for doctoral training called guidelines for education and training at the doctoral level in io psychology These guidelines clearly stipulate that the underlying approach to training is the scientistpractitioner model which maintains that io psychologists are often both the general creators of knowledge scientists and the consumers of such knowledge practitioners These guidelines also maintain that the goal of graduate training in io psych is to develop competencies which are the skills behaviors and capabilities that allow employees to effectively perform specific functionsor in this case to be effective members of the io profession Table 11 summarizes the competencies that are important SIOP also addresses the importance of diversity in training The guidelines point out that just as science and practice are inherent in each competency an appreciation in diversity can be applied to each as well It refers to awareness to not only ethnic racial and cultural differences but also of age and gender Training usually takes 4 or 5 years of graduate school The last portion of this time is spent on a dissertation which is a unique piece of scholarly research What do IO Psychologists doFigure 11 Primary employment 30 consulting 30 private organizations 35 academic 5 public organizations PreWorld War 1December 20 1901 Walter Dill Scott was invited to give a talk at the agate club in Chicago on psychological aspects of advertising Many refer to the date of this talk as the beginning of io psychology Development proceeded in more of an individual researcher paradigm due to the more individualistic culture World War 1 through the 1920sThis is the period when io psychology really came of age and moved out from the hallowed halls of academia into the applied world Scott and Bingham established a program under the armys personnel files for military personnel Another group of psychologists led by Yerkes worked for the government doing selection and placement of military personnel using their newly adapted toolsthe Army Alpha and Army Beta mental ability tests These tests developed as multiple choicebased intelligence tests that could be administered in groups differed from the more typical individually administered intelligence tests that existed at the time Also io psychology began to expand into government and private industry The Scott Company worked in the areas of mental ability testing personnel planning training and personnel administration The Psychological Corporation specializing in test development was founded in 1921 and still exists today In 1921 Moore received from Carnegie Tech what is believed to have been the first PhD in industrial psychology The 1930s to PreWorld War 2The Hawthorne Studies were a series of experiments some of which examined the impact of illumination on productivity that were conducted at the Western Electric Plain in Hawthorne Illinois These experiments highlighted the importance so social relations and employee attitudes among other things After observing employees behavior researchers realized that the social and psychological conditions of work were often more important than the physical conditions It wasnt until these studies that team development supervision group process worker morale and other organizational phenomena played much of a role in the io field Questions about motivation leadership supervision and human relations began to emerge Many view this time as the birth of organizational psychology World War 2 to the Mid1960sOrganizational psychology took on the role of a more equal partner with industrial psychology and began to emphasize such areas as organizational dynamics work groups and employee morale The number and diversity of universities training students in io psychology increased during this period Personnel counseling developed during this time as an outgrowth of the Hawthorne Studies The focus here was on helping employees deal with personal problems that had the potential to affect their work performance The Mid1960s to the Mid1980sIn 1970 division 14 of the APA changed its name from the Division of Business and Industrial Psychology to the Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Organizational psychology had truly arrived On the industrial side this period saw a great deal of work on selection and performance appraisal These continue to be two of the largest and most researched topic areas in io psychology Organizational topics of interests during this period included work motivation job attitudes and job characteristics These two decades were a time of tremendous growth in io psychology In 1960 there were about 756 members of division 14 by 1980 they totaled 2005The Mid1980s to the PresentDuring the last 15 to 20 years io psychology has grown very rapidly with more work being done in traditional areas such as selection performance appraisal motivation and leadership as well as in new domains The fairness of employment tests has become an
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