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Chapter 3 Heredity And Environment

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PSYC 4070
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Chapter 3 Heredity and EnvironmentThe Genetic CodeGenes affect every aspect of development and that they come from parents and are passed on to children The development of every person is dynamic ongoing and interactional individuals are much more than the product of their genes DNA deoxyribonucleic acidthe chemical composition of the molecules that contain the genes which are the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteinsChromosomeone of the 46 molecules of DNA in 23 pairs that virtually each cell of the human body contains and that together contain all the genesGenea small section of a chromosome the basic unit for the transmission of heredityA gene consists of a string of chemicals that provide instructions for the cell to manufacture proteinsAllelea variation that makes a gene different in some way from other genes for the same characteristicGenomethe full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a speciesDevelopment begins at conception when a male reproductive cell sperm penetrates the membrane of a female reproductive cell ovum creating a new cell called a zygote Each human gamete contains 23 chromosomes rather than 46half the number of the zygoteThe single celled zygote copies itself again and again creating an embryo a fetus a baby and eventually an adult with trillions of cellsAt the moment of conception the fathers chromosomes match up with the mothers chromosomes so that they zygotes 23 pairs of chromosomes are arranged in fathermother pairs The genes on the chromosomes constitute the organisms genetic inheritance or genotype which endures throughout lifeIn 22 of the 23 pairs of chromosomes both members of the pair are closely matched These 44 chromosomes are called autosomeswhich mean that it is independent of the sex chromosomes If the code of the gene from one parent is exactly like the code on that gene from the other parent the gene pair is homozygousIf the code of one gene differs from that of its counterpart the two genes still pair up but the zygote is heterozygous for the trait that specific gene influences
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