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Socl 3601 Exam 1

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SOCL 3601
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Socl 3601Exam 1Three Major Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology1StructuralFunctionalismlook at how different parts of society function together to maintain the whole macrolevel approach to the study of society they study the institutions of society the classes of people2Conflict TheoryAbout conflict and competition in societyaOver power control of resources bDomination of less powerful groups by those in power cSocial change comes about when the less powerful overpower the more powerful replace with a new system of oppressiondMacrolevel3Symbolic InteractionGeorge H Mead Humans have the ability to use significant symbols symbols with shared meanings for everyone in societyaWe use these symbols to form societies through interactionbTake a microlevel approach nothing gets done in society unless it gets done by people focus on people in small groupsPsyc developed as a discipline in the early 1800sBut we soon figured out that you need to know more than what is going on in peoples head in order to understand behavior so lets develop another fieldBehaviorismstimuli and responseoWhen we behave in approved behavior we get rewardedoWhen we behave in unapproved behavior we get punishedoOver the course of time acceptable social habits become part of human natureoPopular pool of thought around the turn of the century it faded and then threvised in the start of the 20 centuryoBF Skinnergreat reformer in this field trained pigeons to show that behavior can be curvedoWeaknessthere are a few weaknesses to behaviorismAlternatives choicesCognitive abilities the ability to think things outadvancedWe use our cognitive abilities through social interactionsThere is no room for it all in behaviorism aloneoFor sociologists this falls way short of an adequate explanation of what people do and why they do itRational Choice Theory and Exchange TheoryoW can weigh the expected benefits of any particular behavior and we can way that against the costs and the risks of engaging in the behaviorIf the benefits outweigh the costs we will engage in the behavior more than likelySome rewards are more important than others we all have different dislikes and preferences in certain circumstancesSocial Learning TheoryTalks about three different ways in which we learnoWe learn through experiencesoInternalizing what we are explicitly taught by other peopleoVicarious Learningwe can watch other people and see what they do and learn from itWhat works for someone else may or may not work for usKids learn this as they grow adults continue throughout lifeDramaturgyErvin GoffmanoWhen we are in the presence of other people we present a character to other people just like an actor on stage presents a character to an audienceoWe need our audience to buy into the character that we present we need them to believe that we are who we say we areIf they do things are goodIf they dont interaction will change most likely in ways that we dont likePostmodernismModernthe present era postafteroThey must be talking about the future but this isnt how they use the wordoThey probably mean to be saying postindustrialoUse postindustrial not postmodernEthics oMust submit studies to Internal Review Board IRBoThings they look forDo not harm your subjectsPhysical psychological etcConfidentialityAnonymityInformed ConsentGary FineStudied Little League PlayersoStudied how they developed their own sense of masculinity how do men actoWrote With The BoysoObserved them on the ball field and at practice
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