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Sociology Test 1 Class Notes

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCL 4461
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Test 1 Class NotesCrime versus DevianceAntebellumDevianceoWhen a person goes against any of societies norms any behavior that society says you should not dooNot all deviant behaviors are crimesCrimeoA deviant behavior that is so bad it is considered a crimeoAll crimes are considered deviant behaviorWhen does a deviant behavior become a crime Consensus ModeloAssumes that if most people in society agree that something is so bad that there should be a law against itit becomes a crimeoDetermined by society and a majorityoAs societies opinion changes so do the laws regarding crimeConflict ModeloThings are made criminal when people in power decide it is against the lawoNot everyone agrees it should be against the law only a select fewoExampleProhibitionoPeople in power make laws that benefit themselvesThe laws have been put in place by a combination of both of these modelsPenumbral CrimesCrimes that the majority of people commitbecause most people ignore these lawsThere is no stigma attached to breaking these lawsNot really enforced by the policeExamplespeedingTwo types of criminal lawSubstantive LawoFor the citizenslaws that we have to followProcedural LawoThe laws for the governmentpolice court systems etcRules that have to be followed when making criminal lawsLaws must be specific cant be too vague or overbroadCant criminalize a persons status or thoughtcan only make actual behaviors or actions against the lawEx Post Facto LawsoThe Constitution does not allow these types of laws to be writtenoCant charge someone or punish someone for doing something before it was made illegalCrime DataThis is the most important tool that a criminologist hasOfficial statistics about crimesoData is collected by local law enforcement and sent to the FBIWhy is it so importantoAllows us to estimate the frequency of crimesoTells us different types of offenders and victimsoLets us target criminal justice resources where they are needed the mostTwo sources of crime dataUniform Crime Reports UCRoseparated into two categoriesPart I Index CrimesViolent Crimesmurder rape robbery aggravated assaultProperty Crimesburglary larceny theft motor vehicle theft arsonPart II CrimesAll nonindex crimesdrug violations DUI simple assault disorderly conduct liquorlaw violations public drunkenness etcoThe crime clocktakes all crimes and divides it by time of dayExampleone violent crime is committed every 23 secondsMore property crimes are committed than violent crimesNational Incident Based Reporting System NIBRSothe new direction the FBI is going in changing to this from UCRmany police departments do not want to change systems so it is a slow processothe main benefit is that it contains much more information than the UCRmain difference between the twoothe UCR is a summary fileit gives a summary of the total number of crimes committedothe NIBRS is incident basedit is a list of every incident and all the particulars for that specific crimeohierarchy rule see belowCrime Rate
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