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Final Questions (got 96%)

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SOCL 4461

Test questions on the FINAL Everything highlighted in blue was definitely a question on the finalBe prepared for a tricky test everything you think is gonna be on there isnt and everything you wouldnt think is on the final isCriminology is the study of three thingsLaw making law breaking and the social reaction to law breakingTwo sources of crime dataUniform Crime Reports UCRoseparated into two categoriesPart I Index CrimesViolent Crimesmurder rape robbery aggravated assaultProperty Crimesburglary larceny theft motor vehicle theft arsonPart II CrimesAll nonindex crimesdrug violations DUI simple assault disorderly conduct liquorlaw violations public drunkenness etcKnow the what crimes are index crimes and which are non index crimes because he definitely uses that on 2 or 3 questions almost trying to trick youNational Incident Based Reporting System NIBRSothe new direction the FBI is going in changing to this from UCRothe main benefit is that it contains much more information than the UCRmain difference between the twoothe UCR is a summary fileit gives a summary of the total number of crimes committedothe NIBRS is incident basedit is a list of every incident and all the particulars for that specific crimeQ asks which homicide is not reported to the ucr or Clearance Ratetheof offenses that have been cleared by an arrest oThe number of arrests divided by the number of crimes then multiplied by 100Violent crimes have a higher clearance rate oMurder has highest clearance rate 62oAggravated assault has second highest 55 because the perpetrator can usually be identifiedProblems with the accuracy of official statisticsonly uses reported crimesoviolent crimes are more likely to be reported exception is rapeoproperty crimes are more likely to be reported if the value of the property is high motor vehicle theftothe relationship between the victim and the offender affects the reporting ratecrimes committed by a stranger are more likely to be reportedWhile official statistics give us a bottom line numberit is too low and is not accuratethere are more crimes committed than what official statistics actually reflectOther data source alternativesNational Crime Victimization Survey NCVSoA survey of entire households12 years old and olderoAsks participants what crimes they have been a victim of in the last 12 yearsoOnly asks about index crimes with the exception of murder bc the victim would be deadoMajor advantageCan find out about crimes that have not been reported to the policeoDisadvantagesOverreportingpeople report something as a crime that is not really a crimeExampledrug useUnderreportingnot reporting certain crimes at allExamplerapeFaulty memory12 months is a long time and people have a hard time remembering what and when something happenedSurveying households misses out on the homelessthey are not surveyed at alloThe big difference between this and UCR is with rapes because so many rapes go unreported on the UCRoThe official statistics UCR and NIBRS and the NCVS all agree on who is most likely to be the victim and offenderUnemployed poor young male black single and living in urban areas are more likely to be BOTH the victim and the offenderCrime Trends how crime has been changingThere was a major increase in crime seen in the 1960so144 increaseChange in the populationBaby boomers were coming of ageThe age most likely to commit a crime is 1521 years oldCivil unrestlots of protesting going onCivil rightsVietnam WarNew drug lawsNew crimes coming outChanges in society also cause an increasedecrease in crime ratesIt is NOT just that there are more or less criminals bc of populationThe types of crimes also contribute to a fluctuation in crime ratesoExamplebefore debitcredit cards and ATM machines pickpocketing was high because everyone carried cash now we are more of a credit society and people rarely carry cashpickpocketing rates have dropped but credit card fraud rates have increasedVictimization why are some people more likely to be victims than others14 of households experience 1 crime per year64 of women are victimized by someone they know 43 of men know the perpetrator90 of college females who are rapedknow the person who raped themHomicide by genderMen more likely to commit crimes than womenThe higher the poverty and unemploymentthe higher the crime rateBlacks have highest homicide rateWhat makes people view one crime as more serious than anotherViolence or valueoMore serious when the crime is extremely violent or the property loss is highProperty crimes against business government or public establishments are considered less serious than crimes against householdsThe perceived vulnerability of the victimoAge Crimes against children and the elderly are considered moreseriousThe relationship between the victim and the offenderowhere there is a relationship between the victim and the offenderTrends in crime
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