SOCL 2001 Study Guide - Spring 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Social Class, Trust Law, Sociology

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
School
Department
Course
Professor
SOCL 2001
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Sociology Chapter 1: Its Nature and Development
What is Sociology?
o Scientific study of social relationships, social institutions and society
o August Comte is the founder
o Socius (companion) + logos (word) = sociology (words about human association
or society)
o Sociology is the study of social life and the social causes and the consequences of
human behavior
Sociology is a perspective- we encounter many daily questions: why do most of us feel
uofortale ith a group of people e do’t ko?
Another way to see what sociology is, is to observe some sociologists at work
Its broad discipline but one common thing: sociology is concerned with every aspect of
the self in relationships with others and every aspect of the social world that affects a
perso’s thoughts or atios
What is Sociology perspective?
o Way of looking at society and social behavior
o Way to recognize patterns in social events and view personal experiences in the
light of these patterns
o Sociologists consider the world from their own unique perspective
o Sociological perspective helps us to see beyond our own individual experiences
Sociological imagination?
o Coined by C Wright Mills, American Sociologist
o Vivid awareness between experience and wider society
How does Sociological perspective operate?
o 2 levels: macro and micro
o Macro: large-scale structures and broad
Ex: war and unemployment rate
Solution: structural or organizational level
o Micro: how individuals behave in social situations
Ex: social problems of a veteran or an unemployed worker
Solution: personal or inter-personal level
o EX: Divorce
Micro: how husband and wife interact. Most likely to occur if
personalities are incompatible
Macro: looking at divorce rates cross-culturally. Most likely to occur if
society is modern
Sociology VS other disciplines
o Economics: exchange theory- instead of goods and services, sociologists deal
with love, trust, and friendship in exchange theory
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o Political science: conflict theory- political science is primarily concerned with
power, conflict, and how we regulate them, sociologists use similar ideas to deal
with the power and conflict in everyday life
o Anthropology: anthropologists study society as a whole, whereas sociologists
concentrate to one particular aspect
o Psychology: Social psychology is the study of how an individual influences his or
her social interactions with other individuals and how social behavior influences
the individual; symbolic interactionism- major sociological perspective that
shares the same origin with social psychology
o History: basically descriptive, however, many historians are turning to
sociological methods of analysis to determine what social forces influenced
specific historic events
Development of Sociology in America
o Chicago school- after WWI, a group of scholars at the Univ. of Chicago developed
an approach to social psychology known as the Chicago school
o This was the leading center until the 1940s
o 7 of the 27 presidents of the ACA taught/ educated here
o Charles Horton Cooley, George Hebert Mead, WI Thomas were leading figures
o Center shifted to Harvard and Columbia after 1940
o Leading figure there was Talcott Parsons
o Research on traditional subjects (family, race, criminology, urban society)
continued
Eminent Sociologists and their contribution
o August Comte (mathematician and natural scientist)
known for the law of human progress: theological/fictions,
metaphysical/abstract, scientific/positive
viewed society as a type of organism (like plants, society has a structure-
simple to complex)
sociology focuses on both social status and social dynamics
o Herbert Spencer (training in math and natural sciences)
Believed in evolutionary progress
Theor of soial eolutio surial of the fittest
Adaptation, competition, and survive
Society evolves from homogeneity and simplicity to heterogeneity to
complex
o Karl Marx (descendent of rabbis)
One of the authors of the communist manifesto (1847)
Emphasized political evolution
Economic determinism: all changes, including society conditions and
society itself, are based on economic factors
Economic inequalities result in class struggle between the bourgeoisie
and the protestant
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Document Summary

Most likely to occur if personalities are incompatible: macro: looking at divorce rates cross-culturally. The way in which society is integrated: theres two types, mechanical: all people live in the same way and share similar responsibilities, organic: people have highly differentiated tasks, responsibilities, and behaviors. We are dependent b/c of our skills/unique status: max weber (dr. from univ of heidelberg germany, best known books: the protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism, the. Sociology of hinduism and buddhism, theory of social and economic. Is sociology a science: components of scientific theory, concepts and variables- a concept is an abstract system of meaning that enables us to perceive a phenomenon in a particular way. Independent: variable is the presume to cause an effect: cause: dependent: variable that is presumed to be affected by the independent variable: effect. Inexpensive: disadvantage, out-dated/missing data, **content analysis is an important secondary analysis. Important concept: population: group of people to be studied.

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