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Com 275 Exam 1 Review Guide

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COM 275

Exam 1 Review Session 35 Multiple choice 15 True False questions No short answers Equal number of exam items from each of the lectures (lectures 2-9; not the first day) #2 Pencil What you need to know • advantages and disadvantages of methods, perspectives, etc. • know Lasswell’s heuristic and how it guided our class in-class lectures • know assumptions of theories and perspectives • know the important pioneers of mass media • know all the definitions and distinctions given in class • to do perfectly, you will need to know a bit of everything from both class and lecture and readings • BUT LECTURES IDENTIFY IMPORTANT TOPICS Study Tips • Go through notes • read texts • pay extra attention to highlighted things in notes • re-write the things you've previously written in your notes • use anagrams and word lists to remember things • Three types of questions: • Identification •Lists in yellow on powerpoint • Understanding •Definitions of terms • Application •Mostly examples of theories • Flash Cards help for types 1/2 Review of Lectures • Models • Linear(one way effect), interactive(feedback), transactional(giving and receiving info. There is feedback, but not the focus) Lasswell’s Model- who say what to in which channel to whom with what effect? • • Content Analysis • Pros vs. Cons It asses what is presented in the media • • purely descriptive • research outcomes: tells us how much of something we have and how content differs • Pros: describes whats on, helps identify areas of interest and or concern. • Cons: incomplete picture, no evidence of media effects • Laboratory Experiment • Pros vs. Cons designed to asses causal relationships • • Pros: criterial for causality, researcher control, low cost, easy to replicate • Cons: artifact, experimenter bias • Survey Research • Pros vs. Cons • Asses the measurable characteristics of a naturally occurring population • Pros: Generalizability, Good for description • Cons: does not show causality , poor data quality (self reported) • Other Methods • Triangulation: Multiple methodologies are used • Meta analysis: a means of systematically integrating the findings from many empirical studies •Longitudinal data collection: Research observing outcomes at more than one point in time. • Cohort: different samples observed at multiple time points • Panel: exact same sample at multiple time points Lecture 3 • What Defines Mass Communication? (Whole slide yellow) • OIAMS • one directional information flow • impersonal source and anonymous receiver • asymmetrical source-receiver association • market exchange relationship • standardized message content • Birth of a Field • Trends leading to change to modern society industrialization • • urbanization • modernization- Focus on material goods and processes • Mass Society • 1920’s • social differentiation increases • informal social controls weaken • communication becomes more difficult • media becomes important information source • Anomie: “Normless-ness” Magic Bullet Theory • • Perspective of much early research • people are socially isolated • have uniform instincts not influenced by social ties • • Human nature and isolation = similar reception and interpretation • direct, immediate, powerful, and uniform effects • war of the world example but not really uniform effects • • Payne Fund Studies • 1st major research • series of studies commissioned to examine content, audience, and effects • Studies do not really show uniform effects • still many see overall effects as very strong • interpreted as evidence of magic bullet Lecture 4 • Standard History • powerful media effects • limited media effects effects of varying levels • • “Pioneers” • Frances Fenton • Effects of violent media on behavior • Gabriel Tarde • Carl Hovland • experimental research about media effects on attitude change • Paul Lazarsfeld • “opinion leaders” • two step flow model of media effect • Harold Lasswell Five Question Model • • Three functions of mass communication in society •to inform •to guide to educate • • Kurt Lewin • Dynamics of group communication •“sweetbreads” study • Important Precursor Studies • Samuel Stouffer • pioneered the use of empirical research • Douglas Waples • added “under what conditions” • Wilbur Schramm • Mediating Factors • Selective Processes • Social categories perspective •similar populations have similar reactions • Joseph Klapper • ordinarily media are not a necessary or sufficient cause of change typically mediating factors result in media being an agent of reinforcement • rather than change • when media do cause change, two things are likely •mediating factors are imperative, allowing a direct mass media effect •mediating factors impel change • media effects do occur in certain residual situations • Albert Bandura • social learning theory • social cognitive theory • Bobo study Lecture 5 • Mediation- Media’s role in providing knowledge • Mediation facilitates relationships with objects not directly known • provides versions of events not directly experienced • creates contact with actors, politicians, and others not otherwise accessible • fosters particular perceptions of people, places and events • Theories of media society relations • Macro theories: dealing with the media as part of the larger social settings • Media institution theories: focusing on the workings of the media as organizations Audience theories: concerned with audience uses of media • • Mainly concerned with power, social integration, and power • Theories on power, integration, and change • Mass society th
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