NFS 4271 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Silicosis, Methionine, Peanut Butter

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17 Sep 2017
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As you read chapter 14 from Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, be able to answer
the following questions.
1. Wh are fluoride, arsei, oro, ikel, silio, ad aadiu ot osidered essetial
nutrients?
Unlike, copper, chromium, iodine, molybdenum, and selenium, these ultratrace
minerals do not have an established essentiality and Adequate Intake or Recommended
Daily Allowance set by the Food and Nutrition board, although some evidence suggests
a possible need.
Fluoride
2. Explain why a sirloin steak bought in one part of the country contains relatively high amounts
of fluoride whereas a sirloin steak bought in another part of the country has a very small
amount of the mineral.
The amount of naturally occurring fluoride and the amount of fluoride added to water
varies across the country. Therefore, the amount of fluoride ingested by cows can be
influenced based upon the use or nonuse of fluoridated water in the area and can then
affect fluoride content in their muscle tissues.
3. Describe the amounts and types of fluoride added to drinking water and toothpaste.
Fluoridation of water is recommended by officials in amounts of 0.7 to 1.2 mg of
fluoride per liter. Sodium fluorosilicate is typically added to water, while sodium fluoride
or monofluorophosphate is used in toothpastes or tablets.
4. Explain the roles of fluoride in teeth and bones.
Fluoride found in bone is typically in its amorphous or crystalline state. In its crystalline
form, fluoride is sequestered in bones by apatite. Mineralized bone and teeth account
for 99% of total body fluoride. As fluoride intake increases, so does fluoride absorption
in these tissues.
5. State what the recommended daily fluoride intakes and ULs are for infants, children, and
adults. Describe the symptoms associated with taking excessive amounts and the conditions
that may occur with continual excessive intakes.
Age
Adequate Intake for Fluoride
Upper Limit of Fluoride
0-6 months
0.01 mg/day
0.7 mg/day
6 months 1 year
0.5 mg/day
0.9 mg/day
1 3 years
0.7 mg/day
1.3 mg/day
4 8 years
1.0 mg/day
2.2 mg/day
9-13 years
2.0 mg/day
10 mg/day
14 18 years
3.0 mg/day
10 mg/day
Male: 19 + years
4.0 mg/day
10 mg/day
Female: 19+ years
3.0 mg/day
10 mg/day
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