Exam 1 Important Information
• Characteristics of Living Systems
• Levels of Biological Organization –Acell is the smallest most basic unit of life.
• Metabolism – all the chemical reactions in a cell,
• Homeostasis = maintenance of internal conditions within certain boundaries
• Reproduction and Development – DNA
• Adaptation – any modification that makes an organism suited to its way of life.
o Over time, organisms become modified by the process of natural selection.
o All living organisms descended from a common ancestor.
• Process of Evolution
• Natural Selection andAdaptation, Variations, Struggle for Existence
• Survival of the Fittest
• Evidence for Evolution - Fossil record, Biogeographical evidence, comparative anatomy,
• Homologous vs. analogous structures, vestigial structures, comparative biochemistry
• Article: “Was Darwin Wrong?” National Geographic.
• Evolution in a Genetic Context - Microevolution
• Hardy-Weinberg Principle - no mutations, no gene flow, random mating, no genetic drift,
o no selection
• Industrial Melanism
• Causes of Microevolution - Genetic mutations, gene flow, nonrandom mating (assortive
mating and sexual selection, genetic drift, bottleneck effect, founder effect
• Natural Selection - directional selection, stabilizing selection, disruptive selection
• Anagenesis, Speciation, species definition
• Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms - prezygotic, postzygotic
• Modes of Speciation - allopatric speciation, sympatric speciation
• Adaptive Radiation
• Origin and History of Life
• Theory of Panspermia, Theory of chemical evolution