Biology Exam 1 Review: Important Notes

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Northeastern University
BIOL 1113
Mary- Susan Potts- Santone

Exam 1 Important Information • Characteristics of Living Systems • Levels of Biological Organization –Acell is the smallest most basic unit of life. • Metabolism – all the chemical reactions in a cell, • Homeostasis = maintenance of internal conditions within certain boundaries • Reproduction and Development – DNA • Adaptation – any modification that makes an organism suited to its way of life. o Over time, organisms become modified by the process of natural selection. o All living organisms descended from a common ancestor. • Process of Evolution • Natural Selection andAdaptation, Variations, Struggle for Existence • Survival of the Fittest • Evidence for Evolution - Fossil record, Biogeographical evidence, comparative anatomy, embryology • Homologous vs. analogous structures, vestigial structures, comparative biochemistry • Article: “Was Darwin Wrong?” National Geographic. • Evolution in a Genetic Context - Microevolution • Hardy-Weinberg Principle - no mutations, no gene flow, random mating, no genetic drift, o no selection • Industrial Melanism • Causes of Microevolution - Genetic mutations, gene flow, nonrandom mating (assortive mating and sexual selection, genetic drift, bottleneck effect, founder effect • Natural Selection - directional selection, stabilizing selection, disruptive selection • Anagenesis, Speciation, species definition • Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms - prezygotic, postzygotic • Modes of Speciation - allopatric speciation, sympatric speciation • Adaptive Radiation • Origin and History of Life • Theory of Panspermia, Theory of chemical evolution • primit
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