Study Guide: Final Exam BIOU319 FL 08
1. What are intermediate filaments (general structure and functions)? What do intermediate filaments have to do with
keratins, lamins, glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAPs), and desmosomes/hemidesmosomes? What are the functions
of these structures or proteins? Know that the heterogeneity of intermediate filaments makes them useful in
identifying cells (e.g., GFAPs).
2. Extracellular matrix: Know that animal cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix consisting of secreted
proteins and polysaccharides. Be able to distinguish the following with regard to general structure and function:
collagen, elastin, chondroitin sulfate, fibronectin.
3. Cell adhesion/cell junctions: What, specifically are the functions of cadherins, integrins, Ig family adhesion
proteins, and selectins? With what type of cell are the selectins particularly associated? What is the function of
tight junctions (know they are composed of claudins and occludins)? What is the function of gap junctions (know
they are composed of connexins)? What are the functions and general structures of focal adhesions and adherens
junctions, desmosomes and hemidesmosomes? Understand that integrins serve as a touchpoint for signaling
between the cell matrix and a tyrosine kinase known as FAK.
4. Cell cycle:
a. Know differences among G1,G0, S, G2, and M. What are the factors that regulate the transition from G1 to S?
What are cyclins and how do they influence the activity of cdk’s? What role do growth factors play in the
regulation of cyclins and cdk’s? Describe how cdk’s are regulated by both phosphorylation and
dephosphorylation, and by inactivation of inhibitor proteins such as p21. What role is played by p53? How do
cdk’s inactivate Rb, and what is the result? What are the factors that regulate the transition from G2 to M? (What
is MPF and what kinds of things does it phosphorylate?). What regulates transition from metaphase to anaphase?
What are three cell cycle checkpoints? What regulates the G1-S checkpoint?