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BIOL 2319 (1)
Strauss (1)
Final

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2319
Professor
Strauss
Semester
Spring

Description
Study Guide: Final Exam BIOU319 FL 08 1. What are intermediate filaments (general structure and functions)? What do intermediate filaments have to do with keratins, lamins, glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAPs), and desmosomes/hemidesmosomes? What are the functions of these structures or proteins? Know that the heterogeneity of intermediate filaments makes them useful in identifying cells (e.g., GFAPs). 2. Extracellular matrix: Know that animal cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix consisting of secreted proteins and polysaccharides. Be able to distinguish the following with regard to general structure and function: collagen, elastin, chondroitin sulfate, fibronectin. 3. Cell adhesion/cell junctions: What, specifically are the functions of cadherins, integrins, Ig family adhesion proteins, and selectins? With what type of cell are the selectins particularly associated? What is the function of tight junctions (know they are composed of claudins and occludins)? What is the function of gap junctions (know they are composed of connexins)? What are the functions and general structures of focal adhesions and adherens junctions, desmosomes and hemidesmosomes? Understand that integrins serve as a touchpoint for signaling between the cell matrix and a tyrosine kinase known as FAK. 4. Cell cycle: a. Know differences among G1,G0, S, G2, and M. What are the factors that regulate the transition from G1 to S? What are cyclins and how do they influence the activity of cdk’s? What role do growth factors play in the regulation of cyclins and cdk’s? Describe how cdk’s are regulated by both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and by inactivation of inhibitor proteins such as p21. What role is played by p53? How do cdk’s inactivate Rb, and what is the result? What are the factors that regulate the transition from G2 to M? (What is MPF and what kinds of things does it phosphorylate?). What regulates transition from metaphase to anaphase? What are three cell cycle checkpoints? What regulates the G1-S checkpoint?
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