CHEM 1150- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 31 pages long!)

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13 Oct 2017
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NSU
CHEM 1150
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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NOTES SET 1
Experiment= an observation of natural phenomena, carried out in a controlled manner so that
the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained
Law= a concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or
regularity of nature and is extremely well tested
must be a theory before it becomes a law
Hypothesis= tentative explanation of some regularity of nature after basic experimentation is
done
Theory= well tested explanation of basic natural phenomena after the original hypothesis as
successfully passed many tests
Scientific Method
Experiments
Results
Hypothesis
Further experimentation
Form a new hypothesis is there are negative results
Support the hypothesis if there are positive results
Theory after the results are consistent after multiple experiments
Further experimentation until it becomes a law
Matter= whatever occupies space and can be perceived by our senses
Law of conservation of mass= Total mass remains constant during a chemical reaction
By Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
Insisted on the use of balance in chemical research
Demonstrated the Law of Conservation of Mass
Wrote the book Traite Elementaire de Chimie, which was very influential to modern
chemistry
Weight= force of gravity exerted on an object
Weight varies depending on where the object is
Measures in Newtons (N)
Mass= quantity of matter in an object
Mass stays consistent no matter where the object is
Measured in grams (g) and kilograms (kg)
Physical state= solid, liquid, gas (states of matter)
Chemical state= element, compound, mixture
Solid
Rigid
Incompressible
Fixed volume
Fixed shape
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Liquid
Fluid
Incompressible
Fixed volume
No fixed shape
Gas
Fluid
Compressible
No fixed volume
No fixed shape
Any Given quantity of gas will fit into a container of almost any size and shape
Physical change= change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity
Chemical change= change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into new
matter or several new kinds of matter
Physical property= characteristic that can be observed from a material without changing its
chemical identity
Chemical property= characteristic of a material involving its chemical change
Substance= matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical process
Element= substance that cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction into simpler
substances
Compound= substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined
Law of definite proportions/ constant composition= A pure compound whatever its source,
always contains definite or constant proportions of the elements by mass
By Joseph Louis Proust
Mixtures= material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances
Heterogeneous= consists of physically distinct parts, each with different properties
Homogeneous= uniform in its properties throughout given samples
Chromatography= separation of a mixture by passing it in solution or suspension or as a
vapor (as in gas chromatography) through a medium in which the components move at
different rates
Unit= fixed standard of measurement
Precision= determination of the reproducibility of a measurement
Tells how closely several measurements agree with one another
Affected by random errors
Limited by the instrument of measurement
Accuracy= Closeness of a measurement to a true accepted value
Is subject to systematic errors
Limited by the instrument of measurement
Significant figures (sig figs)= All digits obtained as the result of a correct measurement
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Document Summary

Experiment= an observation of natural phenomena, carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained. Law= a concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature and is extremely well tested. Must be a theory before it becomes a law. Hypothesis= tentative explanation of some regularity of nature after basic experimentation is done. Theory= well tested explanation of basic natural phenomena after the original hypothesis as successfully passed many tests. Form a new hypothesis is there are negative results. Support the hypothesis if there are positive results. Theory after the results are consistent after multiple experiments. Further experimentation until it becomes a law. Matter= whatever occupies space and can be perceived by our senses. Law of conservation of mass= total mass remains constant during a chemical reaction. Insisted on the use of balance in chemical research. Demonstrated the law of conservation of mass.

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