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Exam 3 Study Guide (Got 92%)

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Department
Communication
Course
COMM 1100
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

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COMM 1100 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 3 Spiral of Silence Theory (lecture 11; Noelle-Neuman Chapter 29 on Carmen; p269-272 of Baumeister & Bushman, 2014) Milgram studies- participants “randomly” assigned the role of “teacher”. “Teacher” administered shocks to “learner” for incorrect responses. If the “teacher” refused to shock the “learner”, the experimenter commanded him or her to continue (.10% were predicted to buzz to the top) Autokinetic effect- illusion of movement, caused by very slight movements of the eye (airplanes have blinking lights on them now) Normative influence- involves going along with the crowd in order to be liked and accepted Asch studies- illustrate the power of normative influence Group norms- the beliefs or behaviors that a group of people accepts as normal Public compliance- outwardly going along with the group but maintaining a private, inner belief that the group is wrong Informational influence- involves going along with the crowd because you think the crowd knows more than you do Sherif studies- illustrate the power of informational influence Private acceptance- a genuine inner belief that others are right Three premises of Spiral of Silence- 1. People have “quasi-statistical organ” or “sixth sense” that provides information about what society is thinking and feeling. Used to observe the “climate of public opinion” and “forecast the future” 2. People have a fear of isolation. To avoid social isolation, people try to determine what opinions are gaining and losing strength. 3. People are reticent to express their minority views, primarily out of fear of being isolated Quasi-statistical organ- “sixth sense” provides info about what society is thinking and feeling Fear of isolation- fear of being alone Need to belong- humans have a fundamental need to belong to social groups. Survival is more likely if we are included in a social group than if we are excluded. However, there is a long road to acceptance within the group. To live together, people usually need to agree on common beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors that reduce in-group threats and act for the common good. Therefore, people learn to conform to their group’s rules. The more we see others behaving in a certain way or making particular decisions, the more we feel obliged to follow suit. This happens even when we are in a group of complete strangers: we will go along with the other to avoid looking like a food. Rejection thwarts the need to belong. Role of the media- people use direct observation and media to judge perceptions of the majority opinion and future success of these. The media tell us what to think about and what others are thinking. People use media to: see if there support for their views, gauge the current public opinion climate, find arguments to support their views. Willingness to self-censor- willingness to withhold one’s opinion from an audience perceived to disagree with that opinion Hardcores- the minority that remains vocal in defiance of threats of isolation. Nothing to lose by speaking out Avant-gardes- intellectuals, artists, reformers who form new ideas. They are willing to express a new opinion Social Judgment Theory (lecture 12; Chapter 15) Latitudes of acceptance, rejection, non-commitment Acceptance: includes the person’s most preferred position, but also includes the range of other opinions on an issue that the person finds acceptable Rejection: the range of opinions the person finds objectionable Non-commitment: those positions the person finds neither acceptable nor unacceptable Anchor- own opinion Ego-involvement- occurs with core values that a person holds High vs low ego-involvement- high ego involvement has implications b/c latitude of rejection is increased, latitude of acceptance and non-commitment is decreased, likelihood of persuasion is decreased, and likelihood of a backlash is increased Contrast effects- judging something as more different than it really is (away from the anchor) Assimilation effects- judging the something as more similar than it really is (toward the anchor) Consistency Theories (lecture 13) Attitudes- global evaluations toward some object or issue (e.g. you like or dislike something, you are in favor of or opposed to some position) Balance Theory (POX)- multiply signs to test if balance exists (+ balance exists, - balance doesn’t exist) Person (P)- person- you Object (O)- other person Issue (X)- object or issue Psychological reactance theory- Psychological reactance- unpleasant tension people experience whenever they feel that someone is trying to limit their freedom Responses to freedom loss- want the forbidden option more, try harder to get it, aggress against the source of the prohibition Cognitive Dissonance Theory (lecture 13; Chapter 17) Cognitive dissonance theory- proposes that cognitive inconsistencies produce an unpleasant mental state called cognitive dissonance Selective exposure- we listen to opinions that are consistent with our existing beliefs Effort justification- people want to convince themselves that all their hard work and effort are worthwhile Post-decision dissonance- if you perform an action but do not have any choice, you don’t have to rationalize it. But if you freely choose the action, you feel dissonance and may rationalize it. Public Communication (lecture 14) Persuasion: is an attempt to change a person’s attitude. It is a form of social influence. Who says what to whom (p281-291 of Baumeister & Bushman, 2014) Source characteristics Credibility Source expertise: how much the source knows Source trustworthiness: whether the source will honestly tell you what he or she knows Aristotle’s list of characteristics: practical intelligence, a virtuous character, and goodwill Likeability Similarity: how much you relate to a source
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