to punish the offender at this point in time.
▪ Why no formal police?
• Aristotle and Democracy
◦ They were trying to create a pure form of democracy. People make they law, they should be in
charge of enforcing the laws.
◦ Ancient Rome
▪ Citizens protect self
• Make arrests, take the offender to magistrate, you impose punishment. The people were in
charge of protecting themselves. You had to keep yourself safe.
▪ Maintain order
• You have to maintain order as a society.As they were in charge of protection and maintaining
▪ EmperorAugustus Contributions
◦ He believes more power should go to government and less to family, this continues for 500
year of power begins to shift.s. This is when the balance
• Praetorian Guard
◦ composed of 7,000 soldiers. The praetorian guard is charged with protecting the emperor and
the outside perimeter of the city. Starts formal police force in protecting areas.
▪ Link between military and law enforcement can be seen here.
◦ Protection details inside the city. Citizens serve as the vigiles. This marks the very first police
force that is civilian in nature.All men in the city take turns serving on the vigile.
• Walk around the city looking for crime or disorder (could be fire, unsightly person).
• Firefighter, police officer, roman citizen
• They had no uniforms, they were in regular clothes- no one really knew who they were.- Block
▪ The vigiles did not have a good relationship with citizens- they turned into alpha males, were
seen has spies and were overall assholes to the citizens.
◦ Feudal Lords and Church
▪ England- Lords and Serfs in Fiefdom.
▪ They did not have any policing system. The Lord was over everything- it was whatever the
Lords decided to do.
◦ Police Development in England
▪ Statute of Winchester (1285)
• Establishes policing and law enforcement in England until the 1800's
• Watch and Ward
◦ All male citizens under the state of Winchester are on the hook for patrolling.
▪ Refilling street lamps so that the streets are lit, so that you can see garbage.
▪ You make sure the citizens are at home and not roaming around.
▪ In charge of putting of fires (firefighter again)
▪ If there is criminal activity, it's your responsibility.
• Hue and Cry
◦ There's a fire, crime, ring the bell and everyone comes to help.All men should be showing up to
◦ Failure to respond?
▪ If you do not respond to the bell, it is an offense. You can go on trial for failure to show up to