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BIOL 011 - Exam 2 Notes.docx

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BIOL 011
Edward Hipkiss

BIOL 011 – Exam 2 Notes Chapter 4: Cells Terms: Cell – smallest living organism Cell Theory – 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2. Cells are the smallest living things 3. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells Plasma Membrane – “gatekeeper” of cell, phospholipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded Cytoplasm – semifluid matrix that contains nucleus and organelles Eukaryotic – cells that have a nucleus Organelle – specialized structure within which particular cell processes occur Nuclear Pore – opening embedded with proteins that regulates passage into and out of the nucleus Chromosomes – long threads of DNA that form a complex with protein Chromatin – complex of DNA and proteins of which eukaryotic chromosomes are composed Ribosomes – small complexes of RNA and protein that are the sites of protein synthesis Cristae – folds within the mitochondria Intermembrane Space – space between the cristae in the mitochondria Thylakoid – disk-like closed vesicles that photosynthesis occur within Grana – stacks or columns of thylakoids (located within the chloroplast) Endosymbiosis – idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living organisms Prokaryotic – lack nuclei, lack membrane-bound organelles, lack cytoskeleton, do have a cell wall and ribosomes, some have flagella Pili – short flagella that occur on the cell surface of some prokaryotes Major People: Robert Hooke – discovered cells, observed cork Matthias Schleiden – all plants are composed of cells Theodor Schwann – all animals are composed of cells Concepts: Cell Theory – 1. All living things are made of cells 2. Cells are the smallest living things 3. Cells only arise from preexisting cells Basic Structures of cells – cytoplasm and cell membrane Eukaryotic Cell Structures – Nucleus: control center of the cell Nucleolus: site where ribosomes are produced Nuclear Envelope: double membrane between the nucleus and the cytoplasm Rough ER: internal membranes studded with ribosomes that carry out protein synthesis Smooth ER: system of internal membranes that aids in the manufacture of carbohydrates and lipids Transport Vesicle: Golgi Complex: collects, packages, and distributes molecules manufactured in the cell Lysosome: vesicle that breaks down the macromolecules and digests worn out cell components Peroxisome (endomembrane): vesicle that contains enzymes that carry out particular reactions, such as detoxifying potentially harmful molecules Mitochondria: “powerhouse of the cell” extracts energy (ATP) from molecules Chloroplasts: (in plants) organelle containing thylakoids, sites of photosynthesis Central Vacuole: (in plants) storage area for H2O Cytoskeleton: (animal cell only) protein fibers, provide shape and anchor organelles Centrioles: produce spindle, aids in mitosis Flagella: long whip-like, used for cell movement (one) Cilia: short, hair-like (oars), used for cell movement (many) Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Prokaryotic cells lack a nuclei, membrane-bound organelles, and a cytoskeleton. They also have a cell wall and ribosomes, and sometimes flagella. Eukaryotic cells are typically larger and have a nucleus. Chapter 4: Membranes Terms: Fluid Mosaic Model: plasma membrane’s basic structure of proteins embedded in a sheet of lipids Phospholipid Bilayer: occurs when a double layer of phospholipid molecules are placed in water (hydrophilic heads facing out, hydrophobic tails facing in) Aquaporin: small channels that allow water to diffuse freely across the plasma membrane Osmotic Pressure: pressure caused by the movement of water into a cell by osmosis, can cause a cell to swell and burst Phagocytosis: the process of endocytosis when the material the cell takes in is particulate Pinocytosis: the process of endocytosis when the material the cell takes in is liquid or substances dissolved in a liquid Major People: Peter Agre: discovered aquaporins Concepts: Structure of plasma membrane: includes phospholipids, proteins, and cholesterol Types of membrane proteins: Transmembrane Proteins – proteins that extend all the way across the membrane and provide passageways for ions and polar molecules to pass into and out of the cell
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