Study Guides (248,450)
United States (123,377)
Biology (180)
BIOL 011 (1)
Midterm

BIOL 011 - Exam 2 Notes.docx

5 Pages
133 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 011
Professor
Edward Hipkiss
Semester
Spring

Description
BIOL 011 – Exam 2 Notes Chapter 4: Cells Terms: Cell – smallest living organism Cell Theory – 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2. Cells are the smallest living things 3. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells Plasma Membrane – “gatekeeper” of cell, phospholipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded Cytoplasm – semifluid matrix that contains nucleus and organelles Eukaryotic – cells that have a nucleus Organelle – specialized structure within which particular cell processes occur Nuclear Pore – opening embedded with proteins that regulates passage into and out of the nucleus Chromosomes – long threads of DNA that form a complex with protein Chromatin – complex of DNA and proteins of which eukaryotic chromosomes are composed Ribosomes – small complexes of RNA and protein that are the sites of protein synthesis Cristae – folds within the mitochondria Intermembrane Space – space between the cristae in the mitochondria Thylakoid – disk-like closed vesicles that photosynthesis occur within Grana – stacks or columns of thylakoids (located within the chloroplast) Endosymbiosis – idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living organisms Prokaryotic – lack nuclei, lack membrane-bound organelles, lack cytoskeleton, do have a cell wall and ribosomes, some have flagella Pili – short flagella that occur on the cell surface of some prokaryotes Major People: Robert Hooke – discovered cells, observed cork Matthias Schleiden – all plants are composed of cells Theodor Schwann – all animals are composed of cells Concepts: Cell Theory – 1. All living things are made of cells 2. Cells are the smallest living things 3. Cells only arise from preexisting cells Basic Structures of cells – cytoplasm and cell membrane Eukaryotic Cell Structures – Nucleus: control center of the cell Nucleolus: site where ribosomes are produced Nuclear Envelope: double membrane between the nucleus and the cytoplasm Rough ER: internal membranes studded with ribosomes that carry out protein synthesis Smooth ER: system of internal membranes that aids in the manufacture of carbohydrates and lipids Transport Vesicle: Golgi Complex: collects, packages, and distributes molecules manufactured in the cell Lysosome: vesicle that breaks down the macromolecules and digests worn out cell components Peroxisome (endomembrane): vesicle that contains enzymes that carry out particular reactions, such as detoxifying potentially harmful molecules Mitochondria: “powerhouse of the cell” extracts energy (ATP) from molecules Chloroplasts: (in plants) organelle containing thylakoids, sites of photosynthesis Central Vacuole: (in plants) storage area for H2O Cytoskeleton: (animal cell only) protein fibers, provide shape and anchor organelles Centrioles: produce spindle, aids in mitosis Flagella: long whip-like, used for cell movement (one) Cilia: short, hair-like (oars), used for cell movement (many) Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Prokaryotic cells lack a nuclei, membrane-bound organelles, and a cytoskeleton. They also have a cell wall and ribosomes, and sometimes flagella. Eukaryotic cells are typically larger and have a nucleus. Chapter 4: Membranes Terms: Fluid Mosaic Model: plasma membrane’s basic structure of proteins embedded in a sheet of lipids Phospholipid Bilayer: occurs when a double layer of phospholipid molecules are placed in water (hydrophilic heads facing out, hydrophobic tails facing in) Aquaporin: small channels that allow water to diffuse freely across the plasma membrane Osmotic Pressure: pressure caused by the movement of water into a cell by osmosis, can cause a cell to swell and burst Phagocytosis: the process of endocytosis when the material the cell takes in is particulate Pinocytosis: the process of endocytosis when the material the cell takes in is liquid or substances dissolved in a liquid Major People: Peter Agre: discovered aquaporins Concepts: Structure of plasma membrane: includes phospholipids, proteins, and cholesterol Types of membrane proteins: Transmembrane Proteins – proteins that extend all the way across the membrane and provide passageways for ions and polar molecules to pass into and out of the cell
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 011

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit