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MUSIC 0711 Midterm: History of Jazz Midterm terms and VIPs
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Department
Music
Course
MUSIC 0711
Professor
Doretta Whalen
Semester
Spring

Description
Terms:  Access – access to markets  Africanization – changing of the results of cross-fertilization  Bantu Rain Song - African song genre that uses pentatonic scale similar to blue notes  Black Codes – laws passed in the 1800s that restricted African American freedom.  Black Swan – first recording company for the black by the blacks  12-bar Blues – AAB form. Defined by chord progression  4 schools of the Blues – Delta, Territory, Southeast, Urban  Boogie-woogie –popular 1920s piano style. Developed in African American communities. Associated with dancing.  Bottlenecking – sliding of hands up and down the strings of a guitar, producing a slide effect  “breakaway” – popular swing dance. Often begins in a closed position, but sometimes leader would swing the follower into an open position. Some variations included both dancers completely breaking away from each other to dance “alone”  cakewalk – 19 century African dance rhymes strutting in parody of white plantation owners  circus – saxophone used in circus, announced the beginning of the minstrel show  concept of silence -  contrafacts – musical compositions consisting of a new melody overlaid on a familiar harmonic structure – no copywrite charges  cornet – a brass instrument resembling a trumpet but shorter and wider.  cross-fertilization – coming together of West African and Western European cultures in North America -  Delta – School of Blues; Mississippi/Alabama/Louisiana. Drone/bottlenecking  Dixieland – an early 20 century jazz with a strong 2 beat rhythm and collective improvisation that originated in New Orleans  drone – a continuous low tone produced by the bass pipes or bass strings of musical instruments  falsetto – a method of voice production used by singers to sing notes in a higher range  gospel – music written about Christian belief  Great Awakening – greatly responsible for introduction of African American religious music in the US  Jubilee – a joyous celebration  Lindy Hop – a fusion of jazz, breakaway, and the Charleston  Melisma – a group of notes sung to one syllable of text  minstrel show – comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music performed in blackface o Show Proper – semi circles on stage, warming up crowds, ended with the cakewalk Olio – solo acts and dance contests o Playet – musical theater, comedy sketches based on black stereotypes  parade drums – one of the first instruments used in jazz.  phonograph – a device invented for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.  piano roll – a music storage medium used to operate a player piano. A continuous roll of paper with perforations punched into it – note control data.  polyrhythm – multiple rhythms occurring simultaneously  race records – records marketed to African Americans during the 1940s. primarily contained race music  Ragtime – began in 1800s in mining camps of Midwest (Sedalia). Left handed provided bass and harmony and right handed played syncopated melodies; polyrhythm; multi- sectional forms; basic form: AABBACCDD  Riff – a short, repeating phrase in jazz. Typically used as an introduction or refrain in a song.  Royalties – the percentages of compensation that musical artists receive for their work  rhythm section – usually contains piano, bass, drums, guitar  sea chantey (shanty) – work song on board large merchant vessels  scat singing – vocal improvisation with wordless vocals, nonsense syllables or without words at all.  shuffle rhythm -  song sermon – precursor to gospel  spasm band – a musical group that plays a variety of Dixieland, trad jazz, jug band, or skiffle music. First spasm bands originated in New Orleans.  spiritual – based on pre-composed protestant hymn, slow tempo, double meaning  Stride - a jazz piano style that was developed in the large cities of the East Coast (mainly New York) during the 1920s and 1930s. Left hand plays a 4-beat pulse with a single bass note, octave, seventh or tenth interval on the 1 and 3 beats, and a chord on the 2 andd 4 beats.  Musicians’ Strike - lasted from 1942-1944. A strike against the major American recording companies because of disagreements over royalty payments. Strike did not affect musicians performing on live radio shows, in concerts.  Swing – style of jazz in the 1930s. Feels/Makes you want to dance  swing formula – writing of a solo line, composing a counter melody, and harmonizing. Invented by Fletcher Henderson and Don Redman.  syncopation – delay or anticipation of the beat  territory bands – another name for Kansas City type of music. Travelling, hard-swinging bands, improvisation.  T.O.B.A. – Theatre Owners Booking Association. Booked actors/musicians for the TOBA curcuit  trap set – a collection of drums and other percussions instruments set up on stands to be played by a single plater. Drumsticks in hand and feet operating pedals that control the hi-gat cymbal and beater for the bass drum.  two-fisted – a change in piano style, stride piano  Underground Railroad – a secret network for helping slaves escape from the South to the North pre Civil War  Vibrato – a rapid, slight variation in pitch in singing or playing some musical instruments, producing a stronger or richer tone  Voodoo – African-derived religion slaves from the Caribbean brought with them  walking bass – a bass part in 4/4 time in which a note is played on each beat of the bar and which typically moves up and down the scale in small steps  work song – used by slaves to do actions and lift spirits VIPs:  Lil Hardin Armstrong – jazz pianist, composer, arranger, married to Louis Armstrong. Chicago, King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band.  Louis Armstrong – jazz trumpeter, influential jazz musician. Born in New Orleans – cornet. Played trumpet in Chicago. Ambassador for the United States.  Count Basie – From New Jersey. Band leader of band in Kansas City. helped launch the swing era. Big band leader from Kansas City.  Sidney Bechet – played the saxophone and clarinet. Part of the Harlem Renaissance. First jazz ex-patriate.  Eubie Blake – longest living piano player (Ragtime). From Maryland  Buddy Bolden – father of jazz, cornetist. From New Orleans. “Hot Blues”  the Nicholas Brothers – from south, part of the 1 wave of the Great Migration to perform in the cities of the North. Became one of the featured acts of the Cotton Club. Also starred in many Hollywood motion pictures. Acrobatic and athletic dances.  Cab Calloway – hi-de-ho man. Bandleader who didn’t play an instrument in the band, but vocalized and entertained.  Kenny Clarke – drummer from the Bebop Era. Invented his own technique on the drums in the 30s. Pittsburgher. Revolutionized drumming during the Bebop Era. 2 part process – using the crash cymbal and the bass drum – “dropping bombs”  Clifford Brown – “Brownie” – one of the greatest trumpet players. Played music with important jazz figures in the late 40s and 50s.  Elizabeth Cotten – singer and guitar player. Invented “cotten picking” an alternating bass style.  Jim Crow – minstrel character with exaggerated and goofy mannerisms  Thomas A. Dorsey – father of Gospel. “Georgia Tom”. Piano player who saw the light. Began playing in clubs accompanying jazz singers. First to write down gospel tunes.  Jimmy Dorsey & Tommy Dorsey – tommy – trombone. Jimmy – saxophone. From Pennsylvania.  Duke Ellington – Swing Era band leader. One of the most important musicians in the 20 th century. Jazz pianist. Greatest Am
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