Access – access to markets
Africanization – changing of the results of cross-fertilization
Bantu Rain Song - African song genre that uses pentatonic scale similar to blue notes
Black Codes – laws passed in the 1800s that restricted African American freedom.
Black Swan – first recording company for the black by the blacks
12-bar Blues – AAB form. Defined by chord progression
4 schools of the Blues – Delta, Territory, Southeast, Urban
Boogie-woogie –popular 1920s piano style. Developed in African American
communities. Associated with dancing.
Bottlenecking – sliding of hands up and down the strings of a guitar, producing a slide
“breakaway” – popular swing dance. Often begins in a closed position, but sometimes
leader would swing the follower into an open position. Some variations included both
dancers completely breaking away from each other to dance “alone”
cakewalk – 19 century African dance rhymes strutting in parody of white plantation
circus – saxophone used in circus, announced the beginning of the minstrel show
concept of silence -
contrafacts – musical compositions consisting of a new melody overlaid on a familiar
harmonic structure – no copywrite charges
cornet – a brass instrument resembling a trumpet but shorter and wider.
cross-fertilization – coming together of West African and Western European cultures in
North America -
Delta – School of Blues; Mississippi/Alabama/Louisiana. Drone/bottlenecking
Dixieland – an early 20 century jazz with a strong 2 beat rhythm and collective
improvisation that originated in New Orleans
drone – a continuous low tone produced by the bass pipes or bass strings of musical
falsetto – a method of voice production used by singers to sing notes in a higher range
gospel – music written about Christian belief
Great Awakening – greatly responsible for introduction of African American religious
music in the US
Jubilee – a joyous celebration
Lindy Hop – a fusion of jazz, breakaway, and the Charleston
Melisma – a group of notes sung to one syllable of text
minstrel show – comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music performed in blackface
o Show Proper – semi circles on stage, warming up crowds, ended with the
Olio – solo acts and dance contests
o Playet – musical theater, comedy sketches based on black stereotypes
parade drums – one of the first instruments used in jazz.
phonograph – a device invented for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound. piano roll – a music storage medium used to operate a player piano. A continuous roll of
paper with perforations punched into it – note control data.
polyrhythm – multiple rhythms occurring simultaneously
race records – records marketed to African Americans during the 1940s. primarily
contained race music
Ragtime – began in 1800s in mining camps of Midwest (Sedalia). Left handed provided
bass and harmony and right handed played syncopated melodies; polyrhythm; multi-
sectional forms; basic form: AABBACCDD
Riff – a short, repeating phrase in jazz. Typically used as an introduction or refrain in a
Royalties – the percentages of compensation that musical artists receive for their work
rhythm section – usually contains piano, bass, drums, guitar
sea chantey (shanty) – work song on board large merchant vessels
scat singing – vocal improvisation with wordless vocals, nonsense syllables or without
words at all.
shuffle rhythm -
song sermon – precursor to gospel
spasm band – a musical group that plays a variety of Dixieland, trad jazz, jug band, or
skiffle music. First spasm bands originated in New Orleans.
spiritual – based on pre-composed protestant hymn, slow tempo, double meaning
Stride - a jazz piano style that was developed in the large cities of the East Coast (mainly
New York) during the 1920s and 1930s. Left hand plays a 4-beat pulse with a single bass
note, octave, seventh or tenth interval on the 1 and 3 beats, and a chord on the 2 andd
Musicians’ Strike - lasted from 1942-1944. A strike against the major American
recording companies because of disagreements over royalty payments. Strike did not
affect musicians performing on live radio shows, in concerts.
Swing – style of jazz in the 1930s. Feels/Makes you want to dance
swing formula – writing of a solo line, composing a counter melody, and harmonizing.
Invented by Fletcher Henderson and Don Redman.
syncopation – delay or anticipation of the beat
territory bands – another name for Kansas City type of music. Travelling, hard-swinging
T.O.B.A. – Theatre Owners Booking Association. Booked actors/musicians for the
trap set – a collection of drums and other percussions instruments set up on stands to be
played by a single plater. Drumsticks in hand and feet operating pedals that control the
hi-gat cymbal and beater for the bass drum.
two-fisted – a change in piano style, stride piano
Underground Railroad – a secret network for helping slaves escape from the South to the
North pre Civil War
Vibrato – a rapid, slight variation in pitch in singing or playing some musical
instruments, producing a stronger or richer tone
Voodoo – African-derived religion slaves from the Caribbean brought with them walking bass – a bass part in 4/4 time in which a note is played on each beat of the bar
and which typically moves up and down the scale in small steps
work song – used by slaves to do actions and lift spirits
Lil Hardin Armstrong – jazz pianist, composer, arranger, married to Louis Armstrong.
Chicago, King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band.
Louis Armstrong – jazz trumpeter, influential jazz musician. Born in New Orleans –
cornet. Played trumpet in Chicago. Ambassador for the United States.
Count Basie – From New Jersey. Band leader of band in Kansas City. helped launch the
swing era. Big band leader from Kansas City.
Sidney Bechet – played the saxophone and clarinet. Part of the Harlem Renaissance. First
Eubie Blake – longest living piano player (Ragtime). From Maryland
Buddy Bolden – father of jazz, cornetist. From New Orleans. “Hot Blues”
the Nicholas Brothers – from south, part of the 1 wave of the Great Migration to perform
in the cities of the North. Became one of the featured acts of the Cotton Club. Also
starred in many Hollywood motion pictures. Acrobatic and athletic dances.
Cab Calloway – hi-de-ho man. Bandleader who didn’t play an instrument in the band, but
vocalized and entertained.
Kenny Clarke – drummer from the Bebop Era. Invented his own technique on the drums
in the 30s. Pittsburgher. Revolutionized drumming during the Bebop Era. 2 part process –
using the crash cymbal and the bass drum – “dropping bombs”
Clifford Brown – “Brownie” – one of the greatest trumpet players. Played music with
important jazz figures in the late 40s and 50s.
Elizabeth Cotten – singer and guitar player. Invented “cotten picking” an alternating bass
Jim Crow – minstrel character with exaggerated and goofy mannerisms
Thomas A. Dorsey – father of Gospel. “Georgia Tom”. Piano player who saw the light.
Began playing in clubs accompanying jazz singers. First to write down gospel tunes.
Jimmy Dorsey & Tommy Dorsey – tommy – trombone. Jimmy – saxophone. From
Duke Ellington – Swing Era band leader. One of the most important musicians in the 20 th
century. Jazz pianist. Greatest Am