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SOC 0005
Daniela Donno

Societies 0005 1/7/13 Lecture 1 Sociology – the systematic study of human social behavior and group societies • Social Psychology – human social interactions Types of Sociology • Public Sociology o Radio/TV – anything that provides the public with information o Public – government policy makers • Methodology (Data) o Quantitative (Numbers) o Qualitative (Numbers, Interviews) • Level of Analysis o Micro-Level Orientation  Social interactions among individual people and groups • Ex. When people ask other people “How are you doing?” People do not expect you to actually answer it with everything that is going on in your life, but just to make sure you know that you are cared for o Macro-Level Orientation  Broad social structures  Societies  Governmental Structure/Policies • How they work Base of Sociology • Empiricism and Theory o If government ran food systems in poor countries, standard of living will go up • Compare  Sociology o Condition A– Government o Condition B – Capitalist o Confounding Variables – just bad structures • Model System – cannot put into software o History  look at past countries • Neutrality – myth  opinions about people Physics – gravity Biology – oxygen Architecture – classroom theatre seating Business – tuition structure Economics – education public vs. private Societies 0005 1/9/13 Lecture 2 Review: What is a Theory? • Big “Theory” – idea about how world works o Deals with universal aspects of social processes or problems, is based on abstract ideas and concepts  Away of looking at right/wrong • Middle-Range “Theory” – claim or argument that leads to empirical predictions o Relationship with empirical evidence dear  Ex. Upper class view on show – Roseanne o Rational Choice  “People make decisions based on reasoned consideration of positive and negative consequences.” Immanuel Wallerstein’s World-System Theory • Background – Modernization Theory • Approach to world history and social change that stresses that the world-system (not nation states) should be the primary unit of social analysis • Stages of Development o Hunter/Gatherers o Agricultural o City/Town o Industrial/Modernization • Movement driven by population growth, new technologies (easier to do manual labors) • Based on Analyses of European Societies (help of Western technologies) o But, non-western countries weren’t modernizing as predicted  1890, Argentina  modernizing  1960, Argentina  stayed static (stayed at the same time/or regressing)  19060’s Modernization system was breaking down World –System Theory (WST) • WhyAren’t Countries Developing? o Global context is different o Europe – prospered by exploiting resources from other places (imperialization – dominance over other nations)  Ex. 1800’s – LatinAmerica depended on Europe (remained static, Japan stayed away from European issues  developed independently) o Need to study entire global economy as a world system o Countries have division of labor  Ex. Bananas vs. computers Societies 0005  “There are today no socialist systems in the world economy any more than there are feudal systems, because there is only one world system. It is a world economy and it is by defining capitalist in form.” • Core Countries – rich, developed countries o West; metropolitan countries; developed world • Semi-Periphery Countries – Semi-industrialized countries o South Africa, Brazil, Greece, Spain o Wants all countries to like it o Wants to support the EU o Stays neutral • Periphery Countries – poor, dependent nations o Underdeveloped countries; satellites; dependencies; South • Dependency – vulnerable state of being exploited by core countries o Ex. Monsanto – sells 1 year of seeds that cannot reproduce o Ex. Us using cheap laborers, outsourcing the labor Criticisms of the World-System Theory (WST) • Economic Determinism o Culture o Social Structures/State (Government) • Criticisms o Neglects local class structures and class struggles o States not just at mercy of economic system  International State System – states are not a product of world economy o Hard to disprove (big theory vs. middle-range theory)  Ex. Core countries use its power, like whether or not to sign treaty  Tries to make it fit theory, can make anything fit own theory o Causality could be backward  Ex. Poverty produces dependency between countries (bananas vs. computers)  Could be both poverty  dependent or dependent  poverty • Ex. Periphery Countries – South Korea and Taiwan Critic of World System = INEQUALITY Societies 0005 1/16/13 Lecture 3 Globalization • World-System Theory o Classification  Core Countries  Semi-periphery Countries  Periphery Countries o The world as a unit of analysis o The historic evolution of the world system (not static) • 1960’s – Cold War o Core Countries  Soviet Union  United States • Present Day o Core Countries  United States  China • TA’s Prediction of the World in 2090 Societies 0005 • Steers away from ethnocentrism • Does not put United States and Europe at the top, but instead SouthAmerican and Australia Globalization = “All those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single society, global society.” (Abrow 1990-1999) Main Process that Characterize Globalization 1. Changing concepts of space and time 2. An increasing volume of cultural interactions 3. The community of problems facing all the world’s inhabitants a. The world is shared by everyone, so environmental problems affect everywhere else through trade and other international business b. Not just physical differences – global warming 4. Growing interconnections and interdependencies 5. Anetwork of increasingly powerful transitional actors and organizations 6. The synchronization of all the dimensions involved in globalization Societies 0005 1/23/13 Lecture 4 Mujica, Main Point • “In my humble way of thinking, the problem we are facing is political.” Research Question • What would happen to this planet if the people of India had the same number of cars per family as the Germans? Hypothesis • If people in India had the same number as in Germany, pollution would rise so much that global climate change would be increased. Empirical Finding • Doesn’t exist, could do models Marxism 1. Materialism o “So I salute the effects and agreements being made.And I will adhere to them, as a ruler…But we must realize…”  Social process driven by material items succeed  How its made, used, where it comes from, ideas 2. Historical Materialism Societies 0005 • Lack of freedom • All going to move into communism, life will be great 3. Political Economy • Theory of Surplus Value  Successful capitalism being able to pay workers that for what they are willing to work for (but still allowing bosses to earn more than the workers) • High-end bartender: $20/hour • $15 drink in 2 minutes • 1 hour: $450 worth of drinks • Ingredients cost ~ $5, $135/hour • Restaurant gets ~ $300 from drinks • Bartender: $20 • $280 = SURPLUS VALUE 4. Sociologist: Structure vs. Agency Chapter 4 Capitalist Economic Systems Need Structural Support • Political Economy o Regime of Accumulation  Employers paying employees less than what they got out of it  Will put money back into system (dividends, bonuses) o Mode of Regulation  Individual cooperation – willing to take inequality  Public goods Public Goods • Collectively Funded Services o Cannot be provide by (capitalist) market  National Security o Governments choose to supply from public funds  Water Supply • Water – has to be able to supply free/cheap water (access) • Should depend on market rates  National Movements  Roads • Why supply from public funds? o Believe should be available to all o Can’t be priced accurately…so can’t be efficiently supplied by market  Ex. National Parks – happy they are there • Why can't be priced accurately? o “Non-Excludability”  Ex. Street lights, air, lighthouses, sidewalks o “Non-Rivalry Consumption” Societies 0005  Ex. Radio Stations o “Impossibility” or “rejection”  Ex. Wars, National Defense Impure Public Goods  “Club Goods” • “Public” is limited, but non-rival consumption Impure Private Goods  At least partly excludable  Benefits/costs affect public, not just those directly involved in economic transactions o Ex. Getting the MMR vaccination, fracking-limit costs to public (economic transaction) Fordist System: Regime of Accumulation  Continual Growth o Mass production (industrialization) o Good for efficiency of production o Bad for worker quality of work life  Marx’s idea of alienation (did not see and result) o Encourage big companies to succeed 1/28/13 Lecture 5 China’s Economy • Manufacturing • Money • Construction Not much services • Higher education people do not do manual labor • College degree (what’s the point in the doing hour after hour in factory work) • Individual attitudes, cultural differences Nation State: Political Entity (Cultural Entity) • Government with borders, having the same borders • Countries that have a common causal identity o Ex. United States is a nation state that can be split up into regions Societies 0005 Not Nation States • Canada (split into two provinces) o English vs. French + colonized by France • Palestine o Israel and Palestine Conflict • USSR (Soviet Empire) o Government broke up into different nation states • Austro-Hungarian Empire Citizenship • Legal status attributed to the country o Status that vies people rights o Carries obligations • Who gets citizenship and who doesn’t • T.S. Marshall – belonging and what rights do people have o Voter ID Laws – when you go to the polls, required to bring photo ID  Poor communities would have a more difficult time to vote because of poverty, no license, or passport) Symbolic • Can you vote • Have the right to enter the country • Have the right to stay in the country • Can be deported? Territorially Linked • Being a citizen = linked to countries • Ex. Germany, Italy, Costa Rica o If ancestors were born there/citizens, that automatically makes you a citizen, want people to stop leaving country, and a sense of nationalism pride Jus soli – automatically getting citizenship if born there • Countries that have high immigration Jus sanguinis – ancestors that lived in that country before a certain time – proof and identity • Germany and Italy o Germany recently opened up jus soli to make it easier to get citizenship. Societies 0005 1/30/13 Lecture 6 Is Globalization Killing the Nation-State? • Scholarly Disagreement • Example using maritime industry: Commercial States • BasicArgument: Nation-State Matters • Maritime Sector: Clearly affected by globalization Maritime Industry’s Nation-State Roots • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea o Ships as national territory…Sort of  Ownership: US subsidiary of Norwegian company part-owned by Hong Kong  Day-to-Day Operations: Outsourced  Crews: Multi-National Societies 0005  Registration: not necessary same cou
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