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01:119:115 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Chemical Polarity, Valence Electron, Ionic Bonding


Department
Biological Science
Course Code
01:119:115
Professor
Dr.Anne Keating
Study Guide
Midterm

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Rutgers
01:119:115
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Dr. Anne Keating
General Biology 115
Lecture #2
9 September 2016
Scientific Process & Chemistry
I. Methods of Investigating Biology
a. Science
a.i. Curiosity
a.ii. Inquiry – natural causes for natural phenomenon
a.iii. Observed and measured
a.iii.1. Supernatural things cannot be observed or measured (not
science)
a.iv. Systematic process
b. Inductive reasoning
b.i. Starting with a large number of specific observations
b.i.1. With this specific observations, derive generalizations
b.ii. Observations -> pattern -> data analysis -> generalization
b.iii. Ex: Darwin
b.iii.1. observed that finches varied across Galapagos Island
b.iii.2. Populations were geographically isolated
b.iii.3. Variation between subspecies increased with distance
b.iii.4. Adopted and evolved to exploit different habitats
b.iii.5. Theory of evolution by natural selection
c. Deductive reasoning
c.i. General premises
c.i.1. Testable hypothesis
c.i.2. Design experiment
c.i.3. Observe specific results
c.i.4. Prove/disprove hypothesis
d. Scientific method – hypothesis driven science
d.i. Observation/pattern
d.ii. Background information
d.iii. Hypothesis – proposed explanation
d.iii.1. “educated guess”
d.iii.2. Tentative explanation (not a theory)
d.iii.3. Falsifiable
d.iii.4. Leads to predictions that can be tested
d.iv. Ex: hypothesis – If (premises) all organisms are made of cells and humans
are organisms, then (prediction) humans are composed of cells.
d.iv.1. Experiments or observations
d.iv.1.a. Test predictions
d.iv.1.b. Series of ordered steps
d.iv.1.c. Statistics to evaluate the significance of results
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d.iv.2. If predictions were not wrong, then you don’t need to reject
the hypothesis
d.iv.3. If predictions were wrong, then you reject the hypothesis
d.iv.4. Experiments can be repeated and the results can be verified
by other researchers/scientists
d.v. Flexibility
d.v.1. Does not have to follow strict steps
e. Language of Science
e.i. Theory - hypothesis with significant support from testing
e.ii. Law – statement of what always occurs under certain circumstances
e.ii.1. When a pen is dropped it falls, when a paper is dropped it
falls…
e.ii.1.a. Law of Gravity
f. Meaning
f.i. GB115/116
f.i.1. Learning observations of other researchers
f.i.2. Getting background information
f.i.2.a. Ability to develop hypotheses
f.ii. GB117
f.ii.1. “do” science
II. Basic Elements of Chemistry (Ch. 2.1-2.4 & 3.1-3.2)
a. Electron (e-)
a.i. One unit of negative charge
a.i.1. Moves rapidly around atomic nucleus
a.ii. Represents potential Energy
a.ii.1. Energy that material possesses due to location or structure
a.ii.2. Work – capacity to cause change
a.iii. Shell
a.iii.1. Where e- is found
a.iii.1.a. Each shell has characteristic distance from the
nucleus and characteristic energy level
a.iii.2. Electrons have potential energy due to distance from
nucleus
a.iii.3. When electrons absorb energy, then they are going to move
to higher shell
a.iii.4. When electron releases energy, then they are going to fall
back to original level
a.iii.5. Ex: respiration and photosynthesis
a.iv. Valence electrons
a.iv.1. Occupy valence shell (outermost shell)
a.iv.2. Hydrogen and Helium
a.iv.2.a. Their valence shells are full with 2 electrons
a.iv.3. all other atoms
a.iv.3.a. valence shells full with 8 electrons
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