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[01:119:115] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (251 pages long!)


Department
Biological Science
Course Code
01:119:115
Professor
Daniel Stern Cardinale
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:119:115
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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LECTURE 1: THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE AND
CHEMISTRY (CH. 1- 3)
A. Scientific Process:
Science- “to know”
a.i. method of inquiry for finding a natural explanation for a
natural process
a.i.1. limited to observation and measurable structures
and process (so must be measurable and observable)
a.i.1.a. systematic (so not haphazard)
a.ii. a changeable process; not rigid; flexible
B. Scientific Process:
a. Inductive Discovery
a.i. process of gathering observations → inductively create conclusions
a.ii. lots of observations(broad) → make generalizations
a.iii. Ex: Human Genome
a.iii.1. Humans’ sequencing of human genomes → figured out
what everything does
a.iii.1.a. had lots of observ. made over time→ general
conclusions made→ descriptions of human genes made
b. Steps:
b.i. Observation
b.i.1. Pattern/Problem
b.ii. Gather background Information
b.ii.1. find out what else is already known about
observation
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b.iii. Develop Hypothesis → Predictions
b.iii.1. MUST be TESTABLE
b.iii.1.a. Ex: You can test if batteries are dead
b.iii.1.a.i. BUT can’t test is a ghost broke a flashlight
b.iii.1.b. Supernatural & REligious things can’t be
tested
b.iii.2. a proposed tentative (not rigid) explanation for
observation that was made
b.iii.3. proposed explanation/solution for an issue
b.iii.4. Hypotheses are falsifiable
b.iii.4.a. can be proven wrong
b.iii.5. Ex of Inductive Reasoning
b.iii.5.a. Gathered info → Make conclusion
b.iii.6. Predictions are structured so that the hypothesis
is true
b.iii.6.a. *Deductive Reasoning*
b.iii.6.a.i. General → Specific
b.iii.6.a.ii. Prior knowledge required
b.iii.6.a.iii. based off of premises
b.iii.6.a.iv. Ex: all organism are made of cells → humans are
organisms → humans are made up of cells
b.iii.7. Can only be SUPPORTED, not proven true
b.iv. Experiment/Test Prediction
b.iv.1. used to test predictions
b.iv.2. one may not always have to do an experiment
b.v. Evaluate/Make Conclusion
b.v.1. statistical significance
b.v.2. “correctness” in relation to prediction
b.v.2.a. Correct
b.v.2.a.i. → Repeat process and verify conclusion
b.v.2.a.i.1. →*Ask a new question*
b.v.2.b. Incorrect
b.v.2.b.i. → Revise Hypothesis
b.v.2.b.i.1. → Repeat Experiment
c. Science is NOT a Linear Process
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