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Exercise Science and Sport Studies
Ian Hunt

Health Fitness Components • Body Composition-Amount of body fat expressed as a percentage. Apercentage of the relative amount of lean body weight and fat tissue in the body. • Cardiovascular Endurance- Extremely high efficiency in the functioning of the heart. Lungs, and blood vessels that results in the increased efficiency in the performance of continuous work involving large muscle groups • Flexibility- Range of movement possible at a joint or joints • Muscular Endurance-Ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeat muscular contractions against a force or to sustain a contraction over time. • Muscular Strength- Maximum amount of force that can be exerted Motor Performance Fitness Components • Agility-Ability to change direction rapidly with control • Balance-Ability to maintain equilibrium while stationary or moving • Coordination-Ability to execute movements smoothly and efficiently • Power-Ability to produce force at fast speed, a combination of strength and speed applied during a short periods Sport: an organized, competitive, entertaining, and skillful activity requiring commitment, strategy, and fair play, in which a winner can be defined by objective means • Involves: o Physical prowess o Skill o Competition o Uncertain outcome perceived by skill o Requires movement • EX: basketball, tennis, football, soccer Physical exercise: a bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health/wellness • Strengthens muscles • Cardiovascular system • Weight loss/maintenance • Enjoyment • Looking for an outcome, do it with a means to an end • EX: cardiac rehabilitation, working out at a gym, zumba class Physical Education: takes place in an academic institution. Generally involves a curriculum, goals/objectives and grading • EX: gym class in high school or college Recreation/Leisure: an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. • The “need to do something for recreation” seems to be an essential element of human biology and psychology • Often done for enjoyment, amusement, pleasure and considered fun • Free time means you choose to do it and you want to do it • EX: bike ride, jog, canoe, hike, play a game of basketball Dance: one of the earliest recorded forms of human movement • An art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music, used as a form of expression, social interaction, or presented in a spiritual or performance setting • Revolutionized like music • Universal • EX: ballet, jazz, hip-hop, ballroom Exercise Physiology: the study of the effects of exercise on the body • Adaptations & responses o Muscular system o Respiration o Nervous system o Circulatory system • Long term effects- length of time, through age and years • Short term effects – duration, what happens during the exercise or right after • Study topics o Environmental factors:  Running outside vs. inside  Altitude of skiing in Vermont vs. NJ o Disability & disease: physical or mental  Amputation and stroke o Athlete performance: how to develop the ultimate program to max their performance o Children & pre-teen: difference between infancy and adult puberty. How they develop and how fast it takes o Sports medicine: prevent & treatment of athletic injuries  Dr. says stop running it hurts, they will suggest new shoes  Personal trainers, PTs, general doctors, athletes Kinesiology: study of human movement • “kines”-latin for very broad academic term • 4 major components o Efficiency, effort, work: input/output—exercise physiology o Condition, control, skill: motor learning. “under what conditions do we develop skills?” o Growth, development, form: motor development “how we grow, when do we develop” o Value, achievement, culture Biomechanics: studies the effects of natural laws and forces on the body in motion • Increase athlete/patient performance, and efficiency • Bio, computer science, math, videography, photography, physics, physiology, simulations • EX: sport: swimming-or topic footwear. Clinical/rehab- gait and posture analysis. Prosthetics. Product design and enhancement Sport Management: the direction given to the setting or structure in which physical activity is offered to the client • Setting: anywhere that sport takes place o Arena, gym, public facilities. Can be a participant or spectator • Structure: the logistics or actual sport of physical activity itself o Tennis, jogging, gold • Client: recognizes that there is an exchange of money for goods/services provided • Direction: takes certain types of personality to manage this business o Aggressive, organized, leader, Type A • To understand the depth of sport management, we need to recognize that “sport” can take on various roles • Sport as: o Activity: focus on leadership and organization of sport in its true form.  Leader, fitness professional, recreation and leisure, corporate fitness  Purest form, usually excel in a sport o Modality: uses sport/fitness/physical activity as a means to an end  Fitness, therapy, sports medicine, cardiac rehab, OT, PT  Sports help to accomplish something else  Managing a business o Service: focus is not on the product or specific service, but rather the delivery of the service.  Client is “purchasing” the service.  The Fees charged increase with level of service  Planet fitness vs. spa o Tennant: sport or activity is a small component in a larger enterprise. Variety of activities take place in which sport is just one tenant in the same location  Multi-tasking leaders, often work in various positions  Meadowlands complex-football takes place but also concerts, shows, horse racing, concessions, transportation, ticket sales o Sales product: looks at the demand that is created form perceived needs. Promotions, direct sales, videos, supplements, sport equipment, gear  Supply & demand  Lu-lu lemon vs. target • Topics of study: o Finance o Marketing o Social media o Organization/administration o Human resources o Risk management o Facilities o Management • Jobs: o Professional sports agent o School athletics director o Sports and fitness program coordinator o Sports events coordinator o Sports facilities architect or engineer o Sports museum administrator/curator Motor Development: interrelationship between…. • Physical ability: mastery of motor skills • Maturation: where is someone in that process? How do we measure maturation? • Skill development: Answers the question, when are motor skills learned? o Maturation process: how to measure where they are in maturation  Skeletal: by bones in wrist, hip angulation  Dental eruption nd  2 sex: puberty • Continuous, sequential, age related process **Infancy adolescence adult  aging • Infant: basic skills, simple, survival • Adolescent/adult: complex, highly organized, simultaneous • Aging: regression to basic survival skills, bodily adaptations to aging process • Areas of study: o Heredity & the environment o Variables of age and sex o Progression of skill development o Skill acquisition o Individual differences Motor learning (how) • Study of internal processes associated with movement or repetitive action that result in changes in response and performance • Under what conditions do we learn motor skills? • Examines: o Acquisition of mo
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