37:575:202 Study Guide - Final Guide: First Red Scare, Palmer Raids, Industrial Workers Of The World

Labor Studies and Employment Relations
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7. Strike, Wave, and Normalcy (1918 1929)
Women’s Suffrage Movement - 19th Amendment: Gave women the right to vote
Many strikes during this time; increase in race riots as well
General Strikes: All workers in an area go on strike, regardless of industry
The First Red Scare: (Strikes Disorders Bolshevism Chaos ?)
Russian Revolution
- The Bolsheviks (working-class) overthrow the government
- Fear in US that working class would topple Capitalism
Palmer Raids: Raids by US govt. against Leftist groups and Communists
- Raided IWW offices and arrested IWW leaders (end of IWW)
Sacco-Vanzetti Trial: Both accused of murder with not much evidence
- Led to many strikes
- Found guilty Executed
- Result: Repressed strikes b/c others did not want to be killed
“New KKK” targeted immigrants, Jews, blacks, etc.
- Nativism: Native-born Americans are good; immigrants are bad
Johnson Reed Act: Limits the # of immigrants that can come per country per year
- Based on proportion of immigrants per country already in US
18th Amendment: Prohibition; outlaws drinking alcohol
Flappers, New Women Not bounded by rules of society
- Flapper culture + employment Rebellious culture (Ex: Hosiery workers)
- Jazz Age Used culture for diversity and used it within movements
Pro-Biz Repub. Presidents Smaller emphasis on solving problems - Harding, Coolidge, Hoover
Consumer-Oriented Culture:
- Families can afford consumer goods due to good economy
- Agriculture workers still lagged
- Great levels on inequality (same levels as Gilded Age)
- Overproduction and Underconsumption
- Make a lot, but not all of the products are used
- Mass Consumerism and Mass Culture: Helped working-class ppl overcome differences
Battle of Blair Mountain (West Virginia)
- Coal workers want safer working conditions and better pay
- Workers vs. Pinkertons; broken up by Federal troops
- Largest battle in America since the Civil War
A. Philip Randolph Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters All-black; “George” workers

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8. Confronting the Great Depression (1929 1934)
Buying on margin + falling economy Margin calls Run on the banks Great Depression
- Failing economy overproduction/underconsumption layoffs, pay cuts (Cyclic)
- 25% unemployment, evictions (hobos), harsher credit terms from banks
- Workers blamed themselves for their failure of the American Dream
- Poor city/state relief; no response from President Hoover
Dust Bowl: Storms in Midwest; impossible to grow things Dust Bowl migrants “Okies
People fight back:
- Unemployed Councils: Helped stop people from getting evicted
- Communists: Grew in numbers
- Scottsboro Boys: Workers charged w/ rape but w/ no evidence; were released post-riots
- Ford Hunger March
- Bonus Army March: Soldiers promised bonds from WWI
- Fed troops push out protestors; burned their huts in DC
- Many ppl against Hoover; realize it’s a systemic problem
FDR and the First New Deal:
- Interregnum of Despair: Time between FDR elected and inauguration
- FDIC; Glass-Steagall Act Both help the ppl out and build confidence in the banks
- Fireside Chats: FDR used radio to reach all Americans
- FERA: Federal Emergency Relief Act
- NIRA: National Industrial Recovery Act; All rules are Voluntary ineffective
- Created the National Recovery Administration (NRA) We do our part
- If you followed NIRA rules you got to put a blue eagle sticker in shop
- Created industry codes establishing minimum wages, conditions, etc.
- NIRA 7a: Workers have right to form unions; unions can negotiate
- Failed strikes: The Great Textile Worker Strike (400k strong)
- CCC: Took young men off the streets and let them work in CCC camps for projects
- Frances Perkins: First woman in Presidential Cabinet; first woman Secretary of Labor
First New Deal Problems:
- Did little for many working people in America
- Limited relief programs
- No unemployment insurance, no pensions, no minimum wage, no max hours
- No union help (NIRA 7a)
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