01:830:311 Study Guide - Final Guide: Reinforcement, Operant Conditioning, Fortean Times

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Published on 25 Jan 2018
Department
Professor
Ch 8
conditional relation A relation in which the significance of one stimulus or event depends on the status of
another stimulus.
configural-cue approach An approach to the analysis of stimulus control which assumes that organisms respond
to a compound stimulus as an integral whole rather than a collection of separate and independent stimulus
elements. (Compare with stimulus element approach.)
discriminative stimulus A stimulus that controls the performance of instrumental behavior because it signals the
availability (or nonavailability) of reinforcement.
excitatory generalization gradient A gradient of responding that is observed when organisms are tested with the
S+ from a discrimination procedure and with stimuli that increasingly differ from the S+. Typically the highest
level of responding occurs to stimuli similar to the S+; progressively less responding occurs to stimuli that
increasingly differ from the S+. Thus, the gradient has an inverted-U shape.
facilitation A procedure in which one cue designates when another cue will be reinforced. Also called occasion
setting.
inhibitory generalization gradient A gradient of responding observed when organisms are tested with the S
from a discrimination procedure and with stimuli that increasingly differ from the S. The lowest level of
responding occurs to stimuli similar to the S; progressively more responding occurs to stimuli that increasingly
differ from S. Thus, the gradient has a U shape.
intradimensional discrimination A discrimination between stimuli that differ only in terms of the value of one
stimulus feature, such as color, brightness, or pitch.
modulator A stimulus that signals the relation between two other events. The nature of a binary relation may be
determined by a third event, called a modulator.
multiple schedule of reinforcement A procedure in which different reinforcement schedules are in effect in the
presence of different stimuli presented in succession. Generally, each stimulus comes to evoke a pattern of
responding that corresponds to whatever reinforcement schedule is in effect during that stimulus.
occasion setting Same as facilitation.overshadowing Interference with the conditioning of a stimulus because of
the
simultaneous presence of another stimulus that is easier to condition. peak-shift effect A displacement of the
highest rate of responding in a stimulus
generalization gradient away from the S+ in a direction opposite the S. stimulus discrimination Differential
responding in the presence of two or more
stimuli.
stimulus discrimination procedure (in classical conditioning) A classical conditioning procedure in which one
stimulus (the CS+) is paired with the unconditioned stimulus on some trials and another stimulus (the CS) is
presented without the unconditioned stimulus on other trials. As a result of this procedure the CS+ comes to
elicit a conditioned response and the CS comes to inhibit this response.
stimulus discrimination procedure (in instrumental conditioning) A procedure in which reinforcement for
responding is available whenever one stimulus (the S+, or SD) is present and not available whenever another
stimulus (the S, or S_) is present.
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