Psychology Exam 1 Notes

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San Jose State University
PSYC 001
Susan Snycerski

Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 01 1. Psychology a. Scientific study of thought and behavior of humans and animals 2. Cognitive Psychology a. Study of how we perceive information, how we learn and remember, how we acquire and use language, and how we solve problems b. Favored by psychologists 3. Developmental Psychology a. Study of how thought and behavior change and show stability across life span 4. Behavioral Neuroscience a. Study of the links among brain, mind, and behavior 5. Biological Psychology a. Study of connections between bodily systems and chemicals, and their relationship to behavior and thought b. Neurons, chemicals, relationship to thought 6. Personality Psychology a. Study of what make people unique and the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situation b. Study of unique traits of specific people 7. Social Psychology a. Study of how the real or imagined presence of others influences thought, feelings, and behavior b. How the real present affect our behavior 8. Clinical Psychology (Biggest) a. Study of the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and ways to promote psychological health 9. Counseling Psychology a. Similar to clinical psychology, but may work with less severe psychological disorders [Marriage, drug abuse] 10. Health Psychology a. Study of role that psychological factors play in physical health and illness b. How psychological state affect physical health 11. Educational Psychology a. Study of how students learn, effectiveness of particular teaching techniques, the dynamics of school populations, and psychology of teaching b. Best way to learning and teaching 12. Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology a. Applies psychological concepts and questions to work settings i. Industrial side 1. Focuses on selecting workers, matching employees to jobs, and evaluating job performance ii. Organizational side 1. Focuses on worker satisfaction, performance, and productivity by examining management styles and work environment (discrimination at work place) 13. Sports Psychology a. Examines psychological factors that affect performance and participation in sports and exercise 14. Forensic Psychology a. Field that blends psychology, law, and criminal justice 15. Structuralism a. Breaking down human experience into small sports th b. 19 century school of thought argued that breaking down experience into its elemental parts offer best way to understand thought and behavior 16. Functionalism th a. 19 century school of thought that argued it was better to look at why the mind works the way it does than to describe its parts 17. Behaviorism a. School of thought asserts that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior. (NOT ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives) b. John Watson i. First behavior psychologist 18. Humanistic Psychology a. Theory of psychology that promotes personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one’s highest potential b. Promoting personal growth and realize highest potential c. Abraham Maslow i. Made Maslow needs “Unconditional positive regard” (Love the child, but can still says behavior is bad, still love child) 19. Positive Psychology a. Scientific approach to studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning b. Martin Seligman i. (Wasn’t popular). Hated him for animal abuse 20. Cognitivism a. Theory of psychology that maintains that we perceive things as wholes rather than as compilation of parts 21. Evolutionary Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience a. Who we are and what we do is a result of brain activity, is impacted by genetic factors, and has a long evolutionary past 22. Evolutionary Psychology a. studies human behavior by asking what adaptive problems it may have solved for our early ancestors 23. Psychiatrist vs Psychologist a. Psychiatrist has a MD and Psychologist has PhD. b. Psychiatrist can prescribe medicine and Psychologist cannot. Chapter 02 1. Independent Variable a. Factor that is manipulated by researcher b. Casual part of relationship 2. Dependent Variable a. Variable that the experimenter measures to assess the impact of a variation in an independent variable b. Outcome is observed from the manipulation of independent variable 3. Confounding Variable a. Variable that affects a participant behavior 4. Random Assignment a. Important to eliminate bias and give participant equal chance. b. The method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any specific group c. Ensure that on average the groups will be similar with respect to all possible variables when experiment begins 5. Informed Consent a. Tell participants in general terms what the study is about, what they will do and how long it will take, what the known risks and benefits are, and whom to contact with questions. b. Must also be told they have the right to withdraw at anytime without penalty c. Information is provided in written form and participant signs, signifying consent d. Participant under 18 = informed consent is granted by legal guardian. e. Informed consents is omitted only in situations such as completely anonymous surveys 6. Ethical Research a. Informed Consent b. Respect for persons (safeguard dignity and autonomy of individuals) c. Beneficence (inform participants of costs and benefits of participants, minimize cost for participants and maximize benefits d. Privacy and confidentiality: protect privacy and confidentiality of participant e. Justice: benefits and costs are distributed equally among participants 7. Placebo Control a. method of research in which an inactive substance (a placebo) is given to one group of participants, while the treatment (usually a drug or vaccine) being tested is given to another group 8. Placebo Effect a. Occurs when the experimental participants change behavior in the absence of any kind of experimental manipulation 9. Expectancy Effect a.
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