Abnormal Psychology Study Guide Exam 2
1. Somatic Disorders
a. Soma = body
b. Exaggerates slightest physical symptom
c. Overly occupied with health or bodily symptoms
d. Fall upon impairment and abnormal
i. Several anxiety is focused on the possibility of having a serious disease
ii. Seems so real that reassurance from doctors do not help
iii. Anxiety or fear that one has a serious disease
i. Between 1% to 14% of medical patients are diagnosed with
ii. Median prevalence rate is 6.7%
iii. Spread fairly evenly across various phases of adulthood
i. Thoughts, emotional, social contributions
ii. Restricted concept of health
iii. Overreaction of stress
iv. Happens after stress-related event
v. Act of focusing increases arousal and makes physical sensation seem more
intense than they really are
i. Relatively little is known about treating
ii. Uncover unconscious conflicts through psychodynamic psychotherapy
iii. Reassurance and education seems to be effective
iv. Drugs like antidepressants
3. Difference between Hypochondriasis and Illness Phobia
a. Individuals who fear DEVELOPING a disease and avoid situations they associate
with contagion = Illness phobia
b. Hypochondriasis = People who are anxious that they HAVE the disease
a. Belief accompanied by severe anxiety and sometimes panic, that the genitals are
retracting into the abdomen.
b. Victims of this disorder are Chinese male. Also reported in females.
c. Typical sufferers are guilty about excessive masturbation, unsatisfactory
intercourse or promiscuity. 5. Dhat
a. Culture-specific disorder
b. Anxious concern about losing semen, something that obviously occurs during
c. Dizziness, weakness, fatigue. = from semen loss.
a. occurs when a person acts sick for ulterior motives such as collecting insurance
money or escaping from a bad situation at home or school.
7. Dissociative Disorders
a. Mild sensations that people experience occasionally: slight alternations,
detachments, in consciousness or identity.
b. Experiences are so intense and extreme that they lose their identity entirely and
assume a new one
c. They lose their memory or sense of reality and unable to function
8. Conversion Disorders
a. Physical functioning such as paralysis, blindness, or difficulty speaking without
any physical or organic pathology to account for the malfunction.
i. Not intentionally produced or feigned
ii. Cannot be fully explained by a general medical condition
iii. Causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational,
other areas of functioning.
iv. Not limited to pain or sexual dysfunction.
9. Factitous Disorder
a. Also faking.
b. Voluntary control but no obvious reason for voluntarily producing the symptoms,
possibly to assume the sick role and receive increased attention.
c. Example: Mom making her child sick to receive attention and pity.
i. Factitious disorder by proxy – when an individual deliberately makes
someone else sick. Atypical form of child abuse.
10. Malingering Disorder
ii. Trying to get out of something, such as work or legal difficulties, attempting to gain
something, such as financial settlement.
iii. Are fully aware of what they are doing and are clearly attempting to manipulate
others to gain a desired end.
b. Difference: Conversion symptoms have stress
11. Body Dysmorphic Disorder
i. Preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance. If slight physical
anomaly is present, person’s concern is marked excessive. ii. Causes significant distress/impairment in social, occupational, or other.
iii. Excessive grooming and skin picking
iv. Avoid mirrors to an almost phobic extent
b. What patients do to alleviate it
i. Excessive tanning
ii. Excessive grooming
iii. Skin picking
vi. Manipulate body themselves to get desired look
vii. Plastic surgery
12. Dissociative Amnesia
i. Generalized amnesia – unable to remember anything, including who they
ii. Happens around traumatic event. Psychogenetic memory loss.
iii. Localized/selective amnesia – failure to recall specific events, usually
traumatic, that occur during a specific period.
i. Mostly in women
13. Dissociative Fugue
i. Memory loss revolves around a specific incident – an unexpected trip.
ii. Person will take off and have no idea how they got there, who they are,
and make an identity for themselves.
iii. Mostly males.
14. Dissociative Trance Disorder
i. Confusion about personal identity or assumption of new identity
ii. Sudden changes in personality.
iii. Dissociative trance disorder (DTD) – trance syndroms that are referred to
colloquially as “falling out”. Condition when the state is undesirable and
considered pathological by members of the culture (related to spirits)
1. Occurs different ways in cultures
2. Possession trance is not accepted as normal part of culture
15. Dissociative Identity Disorder
i. Alters – different identities or personality in DID
ii. Switch – transition from one personality to another
iii. Extreme type of PTSD, how humans learn to survive iv. Highly suggestible fantasy life
i. “host” identity – the person who becomes the patient and asks for
1. Seeks treatment is seldom the original personality of the person.
2. Usually develops later.
ii. Can DID Be faked?
1. Difficult to answer this question
2. It is possible that alters are created in response to leading questions
from therapists or while the person is in a hypnotic state
iii. Usually have 15 identities
i. Develops in childhood, doesn’t develop after age 9.
ii. About 5% in USA have DID
iii. High rates of combordity
iv. Female to male ratio: 9:1
i. Traumatic childhood that requires dissociating from reality to survive
i. Reingration of identities, same as PTSD.
ii. Exposure therapy
iii. Little is known about DID.
16. Depersonalization Disorder
i. Persistent or recurrent experiences of feeling detached from, and as if one
is an outside observer of, one’s mental processes or body
ii. During depersonalization experience, reality testing remains intact
iii. Causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational.
Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide
1. Major Depressive Episode
i. Most commonly diagnosed and most severe depression
ii. An extremely depressed mood state that lasts at least 2 weeks
iii. Includes cognitive symptoms (feelings of worthlessness and
iv. Disturbed physical functions (altered sleeping patterns, change in appetite
v. General loss of interest in things
vi. Loss of ability to experience any pleasure in life = Anhedonia b. Major depressive disorder, recurrent = two or more major depressive episodes
occurred and were separated by at least 2 months during which the individual was
i. Find extreme pleasure in every activity
ii. Compares daily experience of mania to a continuous sexual orgasm
iii. Extraordinarily active (hyperactive)
iv. Require little sleep
v. Develop grandiose plans (believing they can accomplish anything)
vi. Speech is rapid and may become incoherent
vii. “flight of ideas” = Excessive speech at a rapid rate that involves
fragmented or unrelated ideas
viii. Lasts 1 episode. Less if episode is severe enough to require
3. Dysphoric Manic Episode / Mixed Manic Episode
a. Individual experience manic symptoms but feel somewhat depressed or anxious at
the same time.
b. Feels like can’t control manic episode but will go away without treatment and
takes a while
4. Bipolar II Disorder
a. Major depressive episodes alternate with hypomanic episodes rather than full
b. Hypomanic episodes are less severe
i. Median age: between 19 and 22
5. Bipolar I Disorder
a. Same but individual experiences a full manic episode.
i. Average age: 18 years old
ii. Rare to develop after age 40
i. Ongoing drug regiments that prevent recurrence of episodes
ii. Suicide is very common. 17% for bipolar I and 24% for bipolar II
a. Other symptoms that someone is experiencing
b. May or may not accompany a mood disorder
c. 6 basic types:
i. Atypical Features Specifier 1. People with depressive episodes and dysthymia (no manic
episodes) consistently oversleep and overeat during depressive
episodes and gain weight.
2. Can have pleasure/interest to some things
3. Associated with more women and earlier age of onset.
4. More suicide attempts
5. Higher rate of comorbid disorders
ii. Melancholic Features Specifier
1. People with major depressive episode, does not apply to dysthymia
2. More severe somatic symptoms
3. Early-morning awakenings
4. Weight loss
5. Los of libido (sex drive)
6. Excessive or inappropriate guilt
7. Anhedonia (diminished interest or pleasure in activities)
iii. Chronic Features Specifier
1. Applies to people with major depressive episode for at least 2
years. Dysthymic disorder is not considered here.
2. Dsythymia – can take a break for 1 month (on/off)
iv. Catatonic Features Specifier
1. People with major depressive episodes and manic episodes. Rare in
2. An absence of movement (a stuporous state)
3. Catalepsy – muscles are waxy and semi rigid.
4. Excessive but random or purposeless movements
5. More commonly associated with schizophrenia.
v. Psychotic Features Specifier
1. People with major depressive/manic episodes experience psychotic
2. Hallucinations – seeing or hearing things that aren’t there
3. Delusions – strongly held but inaccurate beliefs
4. Somatic delusions – believing that their bodies are rotting
internally and deteriorating into nothingness
vi. Postpartum Onset Specifier
1. Both major depressive and manic episodes
2. 13% of all women giving birth
3. During postpartum period (4-week period after childbirth),
psychotic depressive or manic episodes might happen.
4. 15% of women meet MDE after childbirth
5. 10% of women after childbirth and 5% also in men 7. Dysthymic disorder
i. Shares many symptoms of major depressive disorder
ii. Symptoms are somewhat milder but remain unchanged over long periods
iii. 20-30 years
iv. Persistently depressed mood that continues at least 2 years and patient
cannot be symptom free for at least 2 months at a time.
8. Cyclothymic disorder
a. Milder and chronic version of bipolar disorder
1. Chronic alternation of mood elevation and depression
2. Does not reach severity of manic or major depressive episodes
3. Lasts for at least 2 years
4. Alternate between the kinds of mile depressive symptoms
1. 60% female
2. Age of onset is young: 12 to 14 years old
3. Disorder is not often recognized because they are thought to be
high-strung, explosive, moody, or hyperactive.
9. Learned Helplessness
a. People become anxious and depressed when they decide that they have no control
over the stress in their lives
Chapter 8 Eating and Sleeping Disorders
1. Major Types of Eating Disorders
a. Bulimia Nervosa
i. Binges – Out of control eating episodes
ii. Followed by self-induced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, or other
attempts to purge the food.
b. Anorexia Nervosa
i. Person eats nothing beyond minimal amounts of food, so body weight
sometimes drops dangerously.
2. Bulimia Nervosa
i. Eating a large amount of food than other people would eat under similar
ii. Sense of lack of control over eating during the episode
iii. Recurrent compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain: self-induced
vomiting, misuse of laxatives, fasting, excessive exercise. iv. Occurs at least twice a week for 3 months
i. Purging type: person regularly engage in self-induced vomiting or miseuse
of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas
ii. Nonpurging type: person used other inappropriate compensatory
behaviors: fasting, exercise.
c. Medical Consequences
i. Salivary Gland Enlargement – caused by repeating vomiting, gives the
face a chubby appearance
ii. Eroded dental enamel
iii. Electrolyte imbalance – chemical balance of bodily fluids, including
sodium and potassium levels are imbalanced
1. If left untreated: cardiac arrthythmia (disrupted heartbeat),
seizures, and renal (kidney) failure = ALL FATAL.
2. Normalization of eating habits will reverse the imbalance.
iv. Intestinal problems from laxative abuse are serious. Include severe
constipation or permanent colon damage.
v. Marked calluses on their fingers or back of their hands from friction of
contact with teeth and throat.
d. Associated Psychological Disorders
i. Anxiety and mood disorders
ii. Social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder
iii. Substance use disorders
3. Anorexia Nervosa
i. Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight
for age and height
ii. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight
iii. Disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight/shape is experienced,
undue influence of body weight of shape on self-evaluation, or denial of
the seriousness of the current low body weight
iv. Amenorrhea – absence of at least 3 consecutive menstrual cycles
i. Restricting type – person does not regularly engage in binge eating or
ii. Binge-eating/purging type – person regularly engage in binge eating or
c. Medical Consequences
i. Amenorrhea - Cessation of menstruation
ii. Dry skin iii. Brittle hair or nails
iv. Sensitivity to or intolerance of cold temperatures
v. Lanugo – downy hair on the limbs and cheeks
vi. Cardiovascular problems: low blood pressure and heart rate
vii. Electrolyte imbalance and resulting cardiac and kidney problems
d. Associated Psychological Disorders
i. Anxiety disorders
ii. Mood disorders