ANSC 201 Midterm: ANSC 201 Review 2

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Animal Science
ANSC 201
Josie Coverdale

ANSC 281 1 Edition Exam # 2 Study Guide Review 2(February 12) Gaits -Natural • Trot=2 beat, diagonal feet off the ground • Walk=4 beat, I foot off ground at all times • Cantor=3 beat, diagonal feet pairing with left hind and right front leg reaches out further • Gallop=4 beats, diagonal pair uncouples changing direction/balance (change in lead) -Lead- the front leg that reaches out further (usually inside leg) -Manmade • Pace=2beats, lateral feet off the ground • Rack=4 beats, lateral pairing but 1 leg off ground at all times (mostly saddlebred) Common Gait Defects -Forging(more in pacers)-bottom side of front foot with lateral hind leg strikes -Interfering-swinging legs with toes out -Paddling- walks as if its muscular(less likely to cause problems= pigeon toed) -Cross Firing- bottom side of front with diagonal hind leg strikes Where can you strike? -Scalping –If front hoof hits right above back hoof -Speedy Culting- If front hoof hits between fetlock and pastern -Shin Hitting-If front hoof hits cannon bone -Hock Hitting-If front hoof hits hock/knee Horse Selection Criteria -Intended Use= who’s riding it? -Price Range=something that you want -Temperature=something that fits you -Soundness & Health=pre-purchase exams -Conformation=form to function, balance and structure -Level of Training -Breed, Age, Sex -Pedigree, Quality, Size Vice & Unsoundness of Horses Vice= Bad Habits -Abnormal horse behavior -Difficult to eliminate -Associated with injury or illness • Human made and difficult to remove Common Vices -Aggressive (Behavior Issues) = Biting, kicking, charging, striking, bucking • These are punishable- never can do it again, start young -Flight responses (Behavior Issues) = Rearing, balking, shying, halter pulling, running away • Things they will do when scared/unsure-fear based • Things done to protect themselves -Stall Vices =management related issues- stall kicking, wood chaving, cribbing, weaving, stall walking, bolting feed (eating fast and choking), pawing, tail rubbing(parasites), consuming bedding/dirt Concern? -Can affect usefulness, dependability, and health -Influence on market value= lowered with rice substantially Causes Vice? -Boredom -Lack of bulky feed, primarily forage (reduce more forage= more vices) -Poor management/ inconsistency (They need some type of schedule) -Mishandling/abuse • Cribbing- horses set upper teeth on surface, arches neck and pulls back which draws air into esophagus through the neck= endorphin release -Causes= boredom, frustration, pain - Harmful Effects= abnormal teeth ware, digestive disturbance, weight loss(Crib> Eat) - Prevention= cribbing strap, muzzle, keep forage, activity, company • Wood Chewing-most common vice -Causes= boredom, frustration, low forage diet - Harmful Effects= abnormal teeth ware, splinters, damage to facility - Prevention= chemicals applied to wood, limit access to wood • Repetitive Locomotive Behavoir- way to reduce stress, rocking, weaving, pacing, and nervousness -Causes= high energy diets, lack of exercise -Factor Affecting= social contact, stall size(if too big will move more), frequency of exercise -Problems= hard on fact, constantly working, hard on facility Role of Management Diet & Feeding • Feeding less than 1% of Body Weight in roughage • Changing pre-feeding rituals • Feeding concentrate= more energy isn’t being used Social • Imitation may result • Predisposition may be problem- lack of social involvement Exercise • Frequent exercise may reduce problems Unsoundness & Blemishes -Unsoundness= defect in form or function that affects usefulness of horse • Types= Working & Breeding -Blemishes= Deviation in structure that does not affect usefulness Head -Blindness= really affects usability -Periodic Optnalmia (moon blindness)= vitamin deficiency or fungal deficiency -Overshot/undershot jaw= heritable -Poll Evil= cracked bone- inflammation of the poll -Wobbler (unsound)= compression in the spinal chord- doesn’t know how to keep balance Withers & Shoulders -Fistulous Withers= inflammation of withers with fluid and sensitive- cause by unfitted saddles -Sweeny(unsound)= impact to point of shoulder= atrophy on one side Front Legs -Bucked Shins(unsound)= “shin splints” inflammation of covering of the cannon bone(mostly in running horses. -Bowed Tendons(unsound but ends as either unsound/blemish)= flexor tendon in lower leg is strained causing a c shape. -Ringbone(unsound)= excessive calcification around cornot band/pastern-limits motion and feels as if there are rings. -Splints(unsound but when healed can become blemish)= non-weight baring, excessive wear & tear/ injury/ inflammation -Navicular Disease-syndrome (unsound)= tiny bone in hoof (non weight barring) which acts as a fulcrum fro the flexor tendon- bone starts to deteriorate and becomes rough -Wind Puffs(Blemish)-Front leg only, tiny little bubble of fluid in ankle(fetlock) full of joint fluid that escapes when worked hard -Capped Elbow-inflammation of the elbow occurs because hind leg knocks elbow when laying and causes it to swell Hind Legs -Stifle=(unsound) locking of stifle joint causing patella/knee cap to shift -Stringhalt (unsound)= involuntary flection of the halt -Curb (unsound to blemish)= stress/strain of plantar ligament causing extension -Thoroughbred (blemish)= same thing as wind puff but for back leg on the hock -Bog Spavin (unsound to blemish)= inflammation of joint capsule whit in the hock -Bone Spavin(unsound)= excessive bone at the top of cannon bone which goes upward toward the hock(limits mobility) Behavior & Training Vision -Monocular= 1 image, 1 eye- left & right see different things -Binocular= same image with both eyes -Blind spot= tip of the nose to floor and underneath body, small triangle in front face -Ramped retina= raise and lower head to adjust range- how they figure out distance - Limited color vision= can really see yellow’s and green/blues but can’t se reds -Affected by head conformation = eye placement, forehead width (big eyes and far apart) Hearing- ears let you know what horse is focused on -Excellent hearing= rotation in ears on moveable head & neck (ears move independently), better than sight -Eyes & ears work together -Hears high tones not perceptible to humans (hear lower & higher ranges then humans) Touch- controlling with saddle and harnesses -Skin is a specialized sense organ (respond to pain, pressure, cold & heat) -Spots of sensitivity (mouth, feet, flanks, neck, shoulders, upper lip) -Individuals have differing skin sensitivity Smell- how they identify & recognize -Good sense of smell (better than humans) -Uses= identification- horse and human -heat attraction- flhemen response= occurs when trying to get a better read on smells(especially during heat) -Food Selection Behavioral Categories -Reactive- used to keep animal in harmony with environments= reflex communication, seeking shelter (self-protective behavior) -Ingestive- Includes eating, drinking pattern, obtaining and chewing food(grazing)= priority #1 -Eliminate- Urination and defecation (ex: colic= defecation pattern, pee-every 6 hrs, poop- 2-3hrs, 40-50ibs a day) - Sexual (maternal behavior)- Involves courtship, mating, and maternal behavior, controlled by hormones or is lamed -Caregiving and Care-seeking (epimeletic = herd instinct), advantages-move all together and disadvantages- when you want to separate them but don’t want to (I scratch your back, you scratch mine) -Agonistic- includes actions associated with conflict (ex: Flight: fight, used to establish hierarchy, features to watch= ears (all the way back-angry, faced back- concern, forward-interest/curiosity), eyes (eyelid down-concern, eyelid back-surprised), nose, mouth. -Mimicry- to copy the behaviors of others (all eating tog
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