[ANTH 317] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (15 pages long!)

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ANTH 317
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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ANTH 317
January 17, 2017
What is archaeology?
- The ord arhaeology is fored for to Greek ords
- Archaeos = ancient
What is biblical archaeology?
- Archaeology that relates to biblical times
- Judeo-Christian tradition basis of western culture
- Immense interest among general public
The bible is constructed from different forms of literature
- Poems (song of Deborah)
- Prophecies (Ezekiel)
- Wisdom literature (song of songs)
Objective historical writing does not exist.
- Everything that happens to individuals or the community is believed to be the result of God
Bilial arhaeology’s purpose is ot to proe or disproe the Bile.
- Cannot be totally free to investigate because of bias
- People bring their own opinions into investigation
- Everyone has a type of prejudice
Look at information from the bible based on artifacts and items left behind
Put ito perspetie …
- Imagine yourself 2,000 years in the past
- There have been many different changes in history
- Loss in history and artifacts
- Must understand the material culture
What is the difference between archaeology and history?
History studies:
- Events
- Causes of events
- Facets of human experiences
Archaeology studies: (nuts and bolts of the past)
- Architecture
- Tools
- Weapons
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- Vessels of daily use
- Cultic objects
o Religious items
- Muh ore…
The biblical past is not something ossified in the past but the same as today. Relations and emotions
were presents.
Archeology studies physical remains of humanities past.
Is archaeology a separate discipline or the handmaiden of history?
History is interpretation of past knowledge and archaeology is the interpretation of physical items.
History and archaeology is like the confluence of streams of water
In order to have history there must be writing. Cannot have history without writing.
Archeology can deal with history before writing (pre-history)
- Prehistoric archaeology
- Writing begins in Sumer (near Iraq)
- Sumerian influence is what helped start Egyptian writing
After writings comes out, historic archaeology takes places
Does the invention of writing solve all questions concerning the past?
- Not exactly
Mycenaean Greek (Linear B Script)
1,400 1,200 BC
Homer is writing much later (around 700 750 BC) writing about the period before him
Know the writing was Greek because there was a proto-archaic Greek language
The text that have survived were written on clay tablets (1,200 BC)
- For a long time they could not be deciphered
o Deciphered in 1950s
- The tablets were receipts not poems or anything important
o Contained money amount, number of employees, etc.
May have writing but it may not be about things you want to know.
The interpretation of historical documents
Ancient texts why was this written?
Alternative motive? Glorify ruler or deity?
- Did everyone tell the truth?
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